Ida Bagus Made Suryatika, S.Si, M.Si.
Dra. Igusti Agung Ayu Ratnawati, M.Si.
Prof. Dr. Drs. I Made Dira Swantara, M.Si.

Telah dilakukan penelitian untuk menganalisa konsentrasi aktivitas tritium dalam sampel air laut di beberapa pantai yang dipakai sebagai obyek wisata di Bali. Sampel air laut diambil, kemudian didestilasi dan dielektrolisa, hasilnya di cacah dengan liquid scintilation counter (LSC). Kosentrasi aktivitas tritium di pantai kotamadya Denpasar dan Kabupaten Badung diperoleh dengan sebaran 4,2 x 10-5 Bq/L hingga 4,5 x 10-5 Bq/L. Hasil penelitian ini menggambarkan kosentrasi Tritium di pantai tersebut masih jauh dari ambang batas yang diperkenan melalui SK Bapeten, yakni KA. BAPETEN at SK. No. 2 / Ka BAPETEN / 1999, i.e. 1 x 105 Bq/L. Dari penelitian ini direkomendasikan pantai di kedua wilayah itu layak dipakai sebagai daerah tujuan pariwisata jika ditinjau dari bahaya pencemaran radiasi Beta dari radio Isotop Tritium.

Kata kunci: 3H, air, , elektroda, pencacahsintilasi cair, Tritium,Beta, pariwisata

Ida Bagus Made Suryatika, S.Si, M.Si.
Dra. I Gusti Agung Ayu Ratnawati, M.Si.
Prof. Dr. Drs. I Made Dira Swantara, M.Si.
It has been carried out an investigation of tritium activity concentration in seawater samples in some beaches of tourism area in Bali. Seawater samples were distilled, electrolyzed, and then the results obtained from electrolyze were counted by liquid scintilation counter (LSC). The Tritium activity concentration obtained in Denpasar and Badung beaches was from 4,2 x 10-5 Bq/L to 4,5 x 10-5 Bq/L. The result obtained from this research figures out that the tritium activity concentration is much less than the limited concentration of Government rule of Bapeten, based on the SK Bapeten, namely KA. BAPETEN At SK. No. 2 / Ka BAPETEN / 1999, i.e. 1 x 105 Bq /L. Base on this research, it can be recommended that both beach areas are safe from tritium and Beta of tritium isotope radiations for tourism objects.
Keywords: 3H, water, electrolyze, electrode, liquid scintillation counter, tourism, tritium


Ida Bagus Wayan Gunam, Nyoman Semadi Antara and Anak Agung Made Dewi Anggreni

Department of Agroindustrial Technology
Faculty of Agricultural Technology
Udayana University


Objective of the research was to find out source of lignocelluloses that could be converted to simple sugars especially glucose as raw material in bioethanol production as renewable energy resource. Bioethanol production in efficient process particularly on step of delignification was another aim of the research, so that the process could be applied in industrial scale.
Some solid wastes such as paddy straw, corn stalk, bagasse, waste of wood industry, were used as raw material of lignocelluloses resource. The raw material was dried, ground into small particles, and delignified by using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution, ammonia, and H2O2 in different concentration and soaking time. This chemical treatment were done to reduce lignin content of the raw material and to change the amorphism of cellulose to be more amorphous. Two kinds of cellulose resources were chosen based on value of its potency with the best chemical treatment for delignification. These selected cellulose and chemical used for delignification process were then used on the next experiment which continued by saccharification using crude enzyme of Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viride. Combination treatment of substrate as raw material and filtrate of mould used in saccharification process that produced the highest simple sugars (glucose) was then selected for the next step of bioethanol production.
Results of the research showed that NaOH solution was the most effective chemical substance used in delignification process. This solution also could increase the water retention value (WRV) of the lignocelluloses. Bagasse and corn stalk were the potential agriculture waste to be used as raw material in bioethanol production. After delignification process, this raw material contained cellulose, lignin, and WRV of about 69.46%, 8.79%, and 8.42, respectively. Crude enzyme produced by Aspergillus niger showed higher activity than the enzyme produced by Trichoderma viride. The crude enzyme had FP-ase activity (bagasse as substrate) was about 0.0226 U and CMC-ase activity (corn stalk as substrate) was about 0.0606 U. The other advantages of using Aspergillus niger is able to grow in wide range of temperature and easier to grow than T. viride.

Keywords: chemical treatment, lignocellulose, saccharification, culture filtrate, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viride

Un-electrified Sub-villages around Bali and Local Resources
For Renewable Electrical Energy Generation

Nyoman S Kumara, WG Ariastina, IAD Giriantari, W Sukerayasa

Contact Person:
Nyoman S Kumara
Department of Electrical Engineering
Faculty of Engineering Udayana University
Telp: 0361-703315, Fax: 0361-703315, E-mail:


Bali is one of main tourist destination in Indonesia both for domestic and international travelers. This has transformed the island into one of the province of Indonesia that enjoys good economy and hence achieves relatively good living standards for most of the population. However, it appears there are areas in Bali still without access to electricity which is an essential need in today’s life. World has recognized that electricity is a necessary support for achieving many of the millennium development goals.

The research reported here is investigation on the current status of un-electrified sub-villages around Bali. It also presents results on assessment of local resources such as natural, social and human resources available in those areas. Solution based on application of renewable electrical energy generation is proposed to provide green and sustainable electrical energy for basic uses in the sub-villages around Bali.

Keywords: Bali rural electrification, un-electrified sub-villages, renewable electricity generation, Bali electricity system

I Gusti Bagus Wijaya Kusuma, I Wayan Bandem Adnyana and I Gusti Ngurah Nitya Santhiarsa
Research Center of Industry and Energy, University of Udayana, Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Badung, Bali, 80361 Tel. +62-361-703321, Fax. +62-361-701806, Email:

Post-harvest commodity exports, including coffee, vanilla, clove, cocoa, copra and cacao is a commodity trading can increase the income of farmers and rural communities. In the area of the village - a village in the province of Bali, there are plantations that are widely popular and is one source of local opinion. During this post-harvest commodity exports are dried by hanging lane road that is often mixed with dirt that has value and low quality. Overcast and rainy conditions that often occur at harvest is also a major problem because of the unavailability of adequate drainage facilities. This will result in losses to farmers due to crop loss from the product post harvest valuable. Mechanical Engineering in Energy Conversion Studies Division has developed a drying system which is the integration of solar energy, wind and biomass, which can help resolve drainage problems in some regions . In sunny conditions, solar energy is used to generate heat for drying is assisted by a windmill power. At night, or during cloudy weather and rain, the heating is done by using the energy generated from biomass furnace through indirect heating with a heat exchanger ( heat exchanger) so as not to damage the quality of the product. The results showed that the water content of the post-harvest products achieved in a shorter time, with better quality, and is expected to increase the income of farmers.
Keywords: Engineering dryer, post-harvest products, renewable energy


Evaluasi Crude Antigen Dari Cairan Kista Taenia saginata
Untuk Uji Serologis Taenia saginata Sisteserkosis

Nyoman Sadra Dharmawan, I Made Dwinata, dan I Made Damriyasa
Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan, Universitas Udayana,
Denpasar - Bali, INDONESIA


Taeniasis-cysticercosis is still an animal and public health problems in developing countries, that pig and cattle are the primary intermediate hosts. Many provinces in Indonesia are endemic for taeniasis/cysticercosis. Data on these zoonotic diseases in Indonesia are scarce due to lack of diagnosis methods for detecting the diseases. Serological assays are important methods for epidemiological studies; this method can be applied to identify endemic areas. Antigen preparation from cyst fluid of Taenia saginata metacestode was used for diagnosis by using ELISA methods with the objective of further validating the method as a field diagnostic test. After check board titration the optimal results of ELISA were obtained by employing the antigen dilution at 1:160, with conjugate diluted at 1:4000 and serum at 1:80. Cut off value was 0.655. Using cyst fluid as antigen in ELISA method we observed sensitivity 87.5% and specificity 88.9%. We concluded that ELISA performed with cyst fluid antigen of Taenia saginata metacestodes is a good tool for the diagnosis purpose.

Key Words: Cyst fluid, Taenia saginata, antigen, ELISA


Bambang Admadi Harsojuwono, I Gusti Ngurah Agung dan M. Surya Pramana Mahardika
Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Udayana


The research was aimed to determine the effect of the form of dry food products, and final processing of sweet potato and their interaction, on the nutrition content, resistant starch of the products, and the increasing level of blood glucose of mice after consuming the products. The research was also aimed to find out the best form of dry product that contained the highest resistant starch and nutrition, and the product was expected to be able suppressing the increasing level of blood glucose content.
The method of the research was based on the completed random design with the factorial experiment two factors were experimented, the first factor was the form of dry food products with four kinds of the product from namely: crispy, chip, cracker and snack. The second factor was final processing with two kinds of methods were experiment was done using so nice which divided into eight blocks of combination treatments of the experiments. The nutrition content, resistant starch of dry food products and the increasing level of blood glucose of mice after consuming the products were observed during the experiment.
The result of the research showed that the form of dry food products and the final processing of sweet potato, and their interaction as well, have a significant effect on starch content of the products and content of moisture, ash, protein, lipid, total sugar, reducing sugar, resistant starch and the increasing level of blood glucose of mice after consuming the product. The crispy form of dry sweet potato product and final processed by oven roasting was the best product which could suppress the increasing level of blood glucose of mice to 8 mg/L and has resistant starch of about 39.29%. This product also had the best nutrition content such as content of protein, lipid, total sugar and starch of about 3.42%, 1.79%, 7.98%, and 50.02%, respectively.


Tujuan penelitian adalah 1) mengetahui pengaruh jenis olahan kering, cara pengolahan akhir ketela dan interaksi keduanya terhadap kandungan gizi dan kadar pati resisten olahan kering ketela serta kenaikan glukosa darah setelah dikonsumsi tubuh, 2) mengetahui olahan kering dan cara pengolahan akhir ketela yang tepat sehingga menghasilkan produk yang mengandung pati resisten dan gizi yang tertinggi tetapi menyebabkan peningkatan kandungan gula darah yang terendah.
Metode penelitian disusun dalam rancangan acak lengkap dengan percobaan faktorial. Faktor pertama yaitu jenis olahan kering dengan perlakuan : keripik, chips, kerupuk dan snack. Faktor kedua cara pengolahan akhir dengan perlakuan penggorengan dan pengovenan. Percobaan dilaksanakan secara bioassay menggunakan 80 ekor hewan coba tikus yang dibagi menjadi 8 kelompok perlakuan kombinasi. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap kandungan gizi dan kadar pati resisten olahan kering ketela serta kenaikan glukosa darah setelah dikonsumsi tubuh
Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jenis olahan kering, cara pengolahan ketela dan interaksi keduanya berpengaruh nyata terhadap kadar pati, namun berpengaruh sangat nyata terhadap kadar air, abu, protein, lemak, total gula, gula reduksi, kadar pati resisten dan kenaikan glukosa darah dalam tubuh setelah mengkonsumsi olahan ketela tersebut. Olahan kering ketela yang dapat digunakan untuk pencegahan dan konsumsi penderita diabetes mellitus adalah keripik ketela yang dioven dan memiliki kadar air 3.27%, abu 2.58%, protein 3.42%, lemak 1.79%, total gula 7.98%, gula reduksi 3.35%, pati 50.02%, pati resisten 39.29% dan menyebabkan kenaikan glukosa darah sebesar 8 mg/lt.

Immunological Detection of Rabies Virus in BrainTissues of Infected Dogs by Monoclonal Antibodies
Nyoman Mantik Astawa1, Ida Bagus Kade Suardana1, Luh Putu Agustini2, Faiziah2
1 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Udayana University, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia 80232 Tel. 0361223791, Fax. 0361701808. Email:
2Virology Laboratory, Disease Investigation Centre Regional VI Denpasar, Bali Indonesia

In order to establish an immunological detection of rabies virus in tissues of infectected dogs, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against rabies virus (RV) were produced. The Mabs were produced by fusion of mieloma cells with the lymphocytes of mice immunized with RV. The mAbs produced were then characterized and used for the detection of rabies virus in brain tissues of the infected dogs. Six mAbs designated CC6, EG4, DG10, BB12, CA9 dan EB5 were used in this study. In Western blotting test, some mAbs reacted with 66 KDa which is the glycoprotein of the virus. In immunoperoxedase, 2 mAbs (CC6 and DG10) detected RV in th brain of infected dogs. By direct immunoflourescenec, flourescnce isotyocyanate (FITC) labelled DG10 mAbs detected RV in fresh and formaldehyde fixed brain tissues. RV was detected in 12 infected dogs but not in normal uninfected dogs. In this study it was confirmed that rabies virus can be detected in the brain tissues of infected dogs by monoclonal antibodies.

Development of Bifidobacterium sp. F39B3A and Lactobacillus sp. F2.13 Probiotic Endogenous for Treatment of traveller’s diarrhea

1I Nengah Sujaya, 2Yan Ramona, 3I Dw. M. Sukrama, 1M. Pasek Kardiwinata.
1School of Public Health, Department of Biology, 2Fac. of Science, 3Fac. of Medicine, Udayana University)

Globalization era, which indicating by dinamic mobilization of peoples across the world often associated with dissemination of diseases. Traveller diarrhea (TD) is one of the disease commonly transfer by mobile-peoples that more often occurred in travellers who visisted a poor sinitazion and hygiene countries. It was estimated about 17 millions travellers savere from diarrhea after visiting developing countries such as some countries in Southaest Asia. Treatment of TD is restricted on the administration of antibiotics which often have side effects and induce resitant mutants of pathogens. Since the TD is strongly related to the disturbance of the balance of intestinal microbiota by the pathogens, thus it is an opportunity to develop a biological treatment which more stressed on the maintaining the healthy-balance of intestinal microbita. This can be achieve through consumption of live cells called probiotic. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are considered as benefcial bacteria for human health hence these bacteria to be the prime bacterial target in development of new probotic. Thus this research is expected aable to develop probiotics Lactobacillus and or Bifidobacterium for treatment of diarrhea especially TD.
The following bacterial strains were used in this experiments. Lactobacillus sp F2.12 , Lactobacillus sp F2.13, Bifidobacterium sp B6.1, Bifidobacterium sp B24 and Bifidobacterium sp F39B3A which were isolated from healthy infant feces. The pathogenic E. coli Pd1M isolated from diarrhea patients at Karangasem and E. coli O157 ATCC4394 were kindly provided by Dr. W. Suardana, Fact. Veterinary, Udayana University. All strains are maintained in frozed stock cultures (UNUDCC).
Identification of Lactobacillus sp. F2.12 and F2.13 were performed using API 50CHL kit for identification of Lactobacilli, while Bifidobacterium was identified by PCR using species specific primers for identification of Bifidobacterium. For a more reliable identification ad systematic studies it is important to squence the 16S rDNA targetted to the variable region 1,2 and 3, which covering nucleotides sequneces from no 1-520 bp. Probiotics characterization was undertaken including: resistance to low pH, resistance to deoxycholic acid, antimicrobial activity, resistance to antibiotics, deconjugation of bile salts (bile salt hydrolase activity), biotransformation of primary cholic acid into secondary cholic acid. Capabilities to survive in harse condition of gastrointestinal tract was performed using a model gastric juice. The adhesion capabilities of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria were performed using rat enterocytes both individual and competition with pathogenic E coli (Pd1M dan E coli O157). Exclusion of epathiogenic E coli by Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli were performed in fecal culture inoculted with Bifidobacterium sp. F39B3A and Lactobacillus sp. F2.13 and the population of pathogenic E coli Pd1M determined by specific PCR targetting on shiga toxin encoding gene in E coli Pd1M.
Based on the profile of carbohydrate fermentation using APICHL 50, the Lactobacillus sp. F2.12 dan F2.13 similar to Lactobacillus brevis. In addition, Bifidobacterium sp B6.1, B24 and F39B3A identified as Bifidobacterium breve based on their amplification with species specific primer. Further analisis on genetic diversities showed that B. breve F39B3A is highly different from other Bifidobacterial strains in thie study as well as with type strain of B breve JCM1192T. For further research the B. breve F39B3A was used since the strain unique and highly tolerant to oxygen, while Lactobacillus sp. F2.13 was selected based on their probiotic properties. In addition B. breve F39B3A and Lactobacillus sp. F2.13 were able to deconjugate bile salt (glycodeoxycholic acid) thus these strain highly promising to be developed as cholesterol lowering probiotic isnteda for treatment of diarrhea. The capability of B. breve F39B3A and Lactobacillus sp. F2.13 to adhere into enterocytes revealed that the strains highly possible to be developed as good probiotic for enhancing immune system and to treat diarrhea based on competition ability to occuay surface of enterocytes and inhibitted the adhesion of E coli Pd1M. Addition of B. breve F39B3A and Lactobacillus sp. F2.13 into fecal cultures inhibited proliferation of pathogenic E coli Pd1M of about 100 and 30%, respectively. Thus it is concluded that the B. breve F39B3A was promising strain for treatment of TD.
Keywords: Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Probiotic, Traveller diarhae.

Pengembangan probiotik Bifidobacterium sp. F39B3A dan Lactobacillus sp. F2.13 endogenus untuk penanganan traveller’s diarrhea

1I Nengah Sujaya, 2Yan Ramona, 3I Dw. M. Sukrama, 1M. Pasek Kardiwinata.
1Program Studi Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat, 2Jurusan Biologi, F MIPA, 3Fak. Kedokteran, Universitas Udayana

Arus globaliasasi yang ditandai dengan mobilitas manusia yang semakin tinggi sering disertai dengan diseminasi penyakit. Traveller diarrhea (TD) merupakan salah satu penyaklit ynag berasosiasi dengan mobilitas dan globaliasasi yang kebanyakan terjadi pada wisatawan berkunjung ke daerah wisata dengan sanitasi dan higiene yang kurang. Diperkiranajan sebanyak 17 juta wisatawan mengalami diare setelah berkunjung ke negara berkembang seperti Asia Tenggarara. Pengobatan TD masih terbatas pada penggunaan antibiotika yang dapat menyebabkan efek samping serta resistensi kuman patogen. Mengingat TD erat hubungannya dengan tejadinya perubahan keseimbangan flora normal akibat invasi patogen, maka merupakan sebuah peluang untuk pengembangan terapi biologis yang menekannya pada peningkatan kesimbangan normal flora melalui konsumsi bakteri yang mengntungkan bagi kesehatan yang disebut probiotik. Lactobacillus dan Bifidobacterium merupakan target utama pengembangan probiotik, karena bakteri ini adalah bakteri menguntungkan bagi kesehatan manusia. Penelitian ini diharapkan dapat menggali potensi Lactobacillus dan Bifidbacterium endogen Indonesia guna penangan diare khususnya travellers diarrhea.
Isolat yang dipergunakan dalam penelitian ini yang terdiri dari isolat Lactobacillus sp F2.12 dan Lactobacillus sp F2.13 serta isolat Bifidobacterium sp B6.1, Bifidobacterium sp B24 dan Bifidobacterium sp F39B3A dari feses bayi sehat; E. coli patogen yang dipergunakan adalah E. coli Pd1M yang diisolasi dari kejadian KLB Muntaber di Karangasem serta E. coli O157 yang diperoleh dari Balitvet Bogor.
Identifiaksi strain Lactobacillus sp. F2.12 dan F2.13 dilakukan berdasarkan pola fermentasi gula-gula (API 50CHL untuk Lactobacillus), sedangkan identifikasi Bifidobacterium dilakukan dengan mempergunakan PCR mempergunakan primer yang spesifik untuk species Bifidobacteria. Untuk identifikasi molekuler selanjutnya dilakukan dengan sekuensing 16S rDNA pada bagian variable region 1-3 nukleotida 1-520 bp. Karakterisasi probiotik dilakukan meliputi ketahanan pada pH rendah, empedu (deoksi kolat), penghambatan terhadap bakteri patogen, resistensi terhadap antibiotia, kemampuan mendekonjugasi garam empedu (glikodeoksi kolat) menjadi glisin dan deoksi kolat, kemampuan biotransformasi asam empedu primer (asam kolat) menjadi asam empedu sekunder (deoksi kolat) dianalisis dengan TLC. Kemampuan probiotik untuk melewati kondisi saluran pencernaan dianalisis mempergunakan model cairan lambung. Efek fungsional berdasarkan kemammpuan melakukan kompetisi adhesi dengan bakteri patogen serta ekslusi E coli oleh Bifidobacterium atau Lactobacillus pada kultur feses. E. coli patogen dianalisis dengan PCR dengan primer spesifik untu mendeteksi gen pembentuk shiga toxin pada E. coli Pd1M.
Berdasarkan pola fermentasi karbohidrat pada APICHL 50 menunjukkan bahwa Lactobacillus sp. F2.12 dan F2.13 mendekati Lactobacillus brevis. Dilain pihak Bifidobacterium sp B6.1, B24 dan F39B3A teridentifiaksi sebagai Bifidobacterium breve berdasarkan reaksinya dengan primer spesifik. Analisis keragaman genetik dari strain B. breve dengan PCR-RAPD menunjukkan bahwa B. breve F39B3A sangat berbeda dengan Bifidobacterium lainnya. Untuk penelitian selanjutnya yang difokuskan pada B. breve F39B3A , strain ini mempunyai potensi probiotik yang unik seperti mempunyai adaptasi yang baik terhadap oksigen. B. breve F39B3A dan Lactobacillus sp. F2.13 secara umum aman karena tdiak mengubah asam empedu primer menjadi asam empedu sekunder. Disaming itu, B. breve F39B3A dan Lactobacillus sp. F2.13 mampu mendekonjugasi garam empdu sehingga berpotensi untuk menurunkan kolesterol darah. B. breve F39B3A dan Lactobacillus sp. F2.13 mempunyai ketahanan yang baik pada model getah lambung dan kondisi saluran pencernaan bagian atas sehingga mampu bertahan dalam kondisi saluran pencernaan. Lactobacillus dan Bifidobacterium sp F39B3A mempunyai kemampuan yang baik untuk melekat pada sel enterosit dan mampu menghalangi penempelan E. coli patogen pada enterosit sehingga berpotensi untuk mencegah diare. Penelitian ini juga menunjukkan bahwa B. beve F39B3A dan Lactobacillus sp. F2.13 menghambat pertumbuhan E. coli Pd1M pada kultur feses masing-masing 100 dan 30% sehingga berpotensi untuk melakukan kompetisi ekslusi E coli patogen. Dari penelitian ini disimplukan bawa B. breve F39B3A dan Lactobacillus sp. F2.13 berpotensi untuk dikembangkan untuk menangai traveller diarrhea atau diare lain yang disebabkan oleh E. coli.

Kata kunci: Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Probiotik, Traveller diarhae.

Suata,K*, A.A.N.Gunawan**, Retno Kawuri**.
*: Bagian Mikrobilogi Fak.Kedokteran Univ.Udayana
**: Fakultas MIPA Univ.Udayana


Pengobatan alternatif dengan tenaga biomagnetik berkembang dengan pesat dalam menangani kasus-kasus infeksi maupun non infeksi yang masih banyak ditemukan di Indonesia, namun belum ada penelitian ilmiah yang dilaporkan mengenai hal ini. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat bentuk dan besar amplitudo gelombang, kekuatan energi dan hambatan pertumbuhan bakteri ETEC B2432 pada media nutrient agar (NA). antara kelompok dengan tenaga biomagnetik tidak terlatih (kontrol) dan yang terlatih (Persiapan Payung/PP dan Bayu Pamungkas/BP ). Penelitian menggunakan metoda obserfasional dan eksperimental, antara bulan Mei sampai dengan Agustus 2009.
Hasil penelitian dari 30 orang sampel (masing-masing sepuluh orang dari kelompok kontrol, PP dan BP), menunjukkan bahwa bentuk gelombang antara kelompok kontrol, PP, dan BP tampaknya ada perbedaan, yang ditentukan oleh besarnya amplitudo masing-masing gelombang. Dari analisa amplitudo ditemukan beda rerata amplitudo kelompok PP dan BP berturut-turut 5,90 dan 8,91 volt lebih besar bermakna dari kelompok kontrol dengan nilai p<0,01. Hal yang sama juga terlihat antara kelompok BP dan PP dimana BP menghasilkan rerata amplitudo 3,01 volt lebih besar dari PP yang secara statistik berbeda bermakna dengan p<0,01 Analisa kekuatan energi menunjukkan bahwa kelompok PP dan BP menghasilkan energi lebih besar dari kelompok kontrol, berturut-turut 8,573 dan 4,204 -Joule. Perbedaan tersebut secara statistik bermakna dengan p<0,05. Sedangkan antara kelompok PP dan BP menunjukkan kekuatan energi tidak berbeda bermakna secara stattistik dengan p>0,05. Pertumbuhan bakteri ETEC B2432 menunjukkan bahwa rerata pertumbuhan koloni kelompok PP dan BP adalah 174,16 dan 220,50 koloni secara berturutan, lebih kecil dari kelompok kontrol ; antara kelompok BP dan PP, rerata pertumbuhan koloni kelompok PP adalah 46,33, lebih kecil dari kelompok BP. Perbedan diatas secara statistik bermakna (p<0.01). Perbedaan tersebut secara statistik sangat bermakna dengan p<0,01. Dari hasil penelitian di atas dapat kami simpulkan bahwa kelompok PP dan BP mempunyai amplitudo gelombang, kekuatan energi, dan hambatan pertumbuhan ETEC B2432 pada media NA, lebih besar dari kelompok kontrol, namun antara kelompok PP dan BP menunjukkan kekuatan energi yang tidak berbeda bermakna. Masih banyak hal yang belum diketahui yang berkaitan dengan tenaga biomagnetik, sehingga perlu dilakukan penelitian lanjutan untuk mengkaji lebih dalam tentang peranan tenaga biomagnetik khususnya yang berkaitan dengan bidang kesehatan. Kata kunci : tenaga biomagnetik, amplitudo gelombang, energi, bakteri ETEC.B2432 THE USE OF BIOMAGNETIC AS AN ALTERNATIVE THERAPY IN SUPPORTING NATIONAL RESISTANCE Suata,K*. A.A.N.Gunawan**, Retno Kawuri** *: Depart of Microbiology, Fac.of Medicine Udayana University **: Faculty of MIPA, Udayana University ABSTRACT Alternative therapy using biomagnetic power has developed very fast recently on infectious and non infectious cases, which are still very common in Indonesia. However, there is no scientific study has been reported on this matter.The purposes of this study were to determine the wave pattern and amplitude, the energy power, and the growth inhibition of ETEC B2432 onto nutrient agar plate (NA) between group of people with biomagnetic power who has not been trained (control) and those who have well trained (Persiapan Payung /PP and Bayu Pamungkas/BP), The study method comprised observational and experimental method, carried out from May and August 2009. The results of study among 30 people (10 people each of the control, PP, and BP) showed that the wave pattern between control, PP, and BP groups differed depending on the level of wave amplitude. From analysis of amplitude we found that the amplitude mean of PP and BP groups were 5.90 and 8.91 volt respectively, significant higher than control group (p<0.01). Similar finding was also seen between BP and PP groups, the amplitude mean of BP group was 3.01 higher than PP group which was significantly different (p<0.01). From analysis of energy power showed that the energy power of PP and BP groups were 8.575 and 4.204 Joule respectively, statistically significant difference higher than control group (p<0.05), however the energy power between PP and BP group showed no significant difference (p>0.05). Mean colonies growth of PP and BP groups were 174.16 and 220.50 colonies respectively, less than control group; between BP and PP groups, the mean colonies growth of BP group was 46.33 colonies, less than PP group. The above differences were significant difference (p<0.01). From the results of this study we conclude that PP and BP groups had wave amplitude, energy power, and growth inhibition of ETEC B2432 on NA agar plates higher than control group, however between PP and BP groups, the energy power was not significant difference. Many aspects of biomagnetic power are still not yet clear, therefore, further studies are needed to explore in more detail the role of biomagnetic power especially in the field of health. Key words : biomagnetic power, wave amplitude, energy power, ETEC B2432. PENGHAMBATAN PROTEIN DINDING SEL BIFIDOBACTERIUM sp 51.74 kDa TERHADAP ADESI E. COLI (EPEC) PADA ENTEROSIT MENCIT BALB/c Sukrama, I D. M. Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Udayana ABSTRACT Diarrhea remains a cause of high morbidity and mortality worldwide, therefore, research concerning of management, prevention, and medication of the disease have continually improved. The aim of this research is observing of 51.74 kDa adhesin of Bifidobacterium sp cell wall isolated from infants feces as an anti adhesion of E. coli on enterocyte mice. Randomized Posttest-Only Control Group Design was employed to investigate adherence ability of this adhesin towards E.coli adhesion on mice entherocyte. In this research, it was obtained, that the 51.74 kDa adhesin cell wall of Bifidobacterium sp has an ability to inhibit adhesion of E. coli on mice enterocyte. The ability was increased as an increase of adhsein concentration. Conclusions that can be drawn from this research is the finding of 51.74 kDa adhesin cell wall of Bifidobacterium sp isolated from infants feces can inhibit adhseion of E. coli on mice enterocyte. Future work that can be carried out are further researches concerning whether these protein can be applied to inhibit adherence of other pathogen bacteria. Keywords: diarrhea, adhesion, E. coli, Bifidobacterium sp. Abstrak Diarrhea sampai saat ini masih merupakan penyebab kesakitan dan kematian yang tinggi di seluruh dunia, sehingga riset mengenai managemen, pencegahan, dan pengobatan penyakit tersebut terus berkembang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengamati kemampuan protein dinding sel Bifidobacterium sp 51,74 kDa yang diisolasi dari feces bayi untuk menghambat adesi E. coli pada enterosit mencit. Penelitian eksperimental menggunakan rancangan Randomized Posttest-Only Control Group. Pada penelitian ini didapatkan bahwa protein dinding sel Bifidobacterium sp 51,74 kDa mampu menghambat adesi E. coli pada enterosit mencit. Kemampuan adesinya meningkat dengan peningkatan konsentrasi protein yang digunakan. Kesimpulan yang dapat ditarik adalah memang benar protein dinding sel Bifidobacterium sp 51.74 kDa yang diisolasi dari feses bayi mampu menghambat adesi E. coli pada sel enterosit. Menimbang hasil penelitian dapat disarankan bahwa perlu dilakukan penelitian hambatan adesi protein tersebut terhadap bakteri patogen lainnya. Kata kunci: diarrhe, adesi, E. coli, Bifidobacterium sp. INFRASTRUKTUR SMS BASED TECHNOLOGY FOR DATA SCHOOL COLLECTING IN BALI I Ketut Gede Darma Putra*), I Putu Agung Bayupati**), AA. Kompiang Oka Sudana***) Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Udayana University email : *), , **), ***) Abstract This research designed a SMS (short message services) based infrastructure for collecting data of school in province of Bali. The location of schools spread until to the corner of village and no internet connection available in a large number of school. However, the selluler telecomunication infrastructures have been covered almost of area in Bali. That is the important reason why the SMS technology is used in this research. In this system, each school send its data directly to the server through SMS. There are some special SMS format that is relate to the specific data. The server is located at Disdikpora (Departement of Education, Youth and Sport) of Bali. There are four basic components of server, i.e., SMS gateway, SMS parser, school data of management information system, and website. The system performance is measured based on some aspects, i.e., delivery time, acuracy, availablity, and also cost feasibility. The system has been tested by more than 3000 schools where each school send about 31 types of data. The experiment results show that the system gives optimistic performance with relatively cheap in cost. Keywords: SMS engine; data school collecting; data education; telecommunication infrastructure Penerapan Teknologi VoIP untuk Mengoptimalkan Penggunaan Jaringan Intranet Kampus Universitas Udayana Pande Ketut Sudiarta; Gede Sukadarmika Staff Pengajar Jurusan Teknik Elektro Fakultas Teknik Universitas Udayana Abstrak Jaringan intranet Universitas Udayana telah menghubungkan ketiga lokasi kampus, yaitu Kampus Bukit, Kampus Sudirman, dan Kampus Nias. Lokasi kampus yang terpisah-pisah dan kampus Bukit yang memiliki area yang cukup luas memerlukan prasarana teleponi yang memadai. Selama ini, kebanyakan komunikasi teleponi masih memanfaatkan provider seperti PT Telkom, walaupun komunikasi telepon untuk komunikasi di lingkungan kampus Bukit. Demikian juga untuk komunikasi telepon antar lokasi kampus yang berbeda. Walaupun di beberapa fakultas dan juga gedung Rektorat telah tersedia perangkat PABX namun pemanfaatannya kebanyakan hanya untuk melayani komunikasi dalam satu gedung saja. Intranet kampus UNUD saat ini baru dimanfaatkan untuk akses Internet, akses Sistem Informasi dan untuk videoconference. Dengan beban trafik yang ada, jaringan intranet masih memungkinkan untuk dibebani dengan trafik yang lebih tinggi. Dengan demikian, untuk mengoptimalkan pemanfaatan bandwidth, diupayakan dengan mengembangkan sistem teleponi berbasis VoIP di jaringan intranet UNUD. Selain itu juga untuk meningkatkan efisiensi waktu dan biaya komunikasi bagi civitas akademika UNUD. Infrastruktur yang dikembangkan menggunakan protokol SIP memanfaatkan Free Software Linux Fedora sebagai Operating System, Asterisk dan Ondo sebagai aplikasi server. Di sisi pemakai, perangkat telepon dapat menggunakan dua model, pertama menggunakan softphone yang aksesnya dapat melalui laptop atau PC, ditujukan untuk personal menggunakan nomor induk pegawai (NIP) atau nomor induk mahasiswa (NIM) sebagai nomor telepon. Sedangkan, model yang kedua menggunakan Hardware FXS ditujukan untuk pesawat fix telepon di masing-masing fakultas dan jurusan. Operator menggunakan perangkat IP-phone. Hasil yang dicapai dan perbandingan secara teori, penggunaan codec jenis G711 memiliki nilai MOS yang terbaik dan kompatibel diaplikasikan untuk berbagai layanan seperti FAX dan integrasi PBX, namun memiliki bitrate yang lebih tinggi. Selama pemenelitian belum dapat ditunjukkan perubahan trafik yang ada mengingat perlu waktu untuk adaptasi pemanfaatan teknologi walaupun telah diusahakan dengan melakukan sosialisasi penggunaan perangkat VoIP ini kepada pegawai internal UNUD. INTEGRASI BANGSA IDENTIFIKASI ALEL-ALEL SEPULUH LOKUS DNA MIKROSATELIT MASYARAKAT BALI AGA TENGANAN PEGRINGSINGAN KARANGASEM DAN SEMBIRAN BULELENG UNTUK PENYEDIAAN DATABASE DNA FORENSIK * Dr. Drs. I Ketut Junitha, MS1 dan dr. Ida Bagus Alit, DFM, Sp.F2 Tahun 2009, Pengukapan identitas korban merupakan sutau hal yang paling penting dan kritis untuk penanganan hilangnya nyawa manusia baik karena bencana maupun akibat dari tindak kejahatan. Kesalahan identifikasi korban akan berakhibat pada kesalahan penanganan selanjutnya. Bila identitas korban sudah tidak dapat diteulusuri dari properti maupun ciri fisiknya maka maka analisis DNA merupakan jalan keluarnya. Data DNA mikrosatelit memiliki akurasi yang tinggi dalam mengungkap identitas korban. Tersedianya database DNA sebagai referensi akan memudahkan pengungkapan identitas korban yang tidak dapat dikenali secara fisik maupun dari propertinya. Penelitian ini dimaksudkan untuk mengetahui ragam alel-alel dari sepuluh lokus DNA mikrosatelit autosom yang tersebar pada masyarakat Bali. Ditemukannya alel-alel khusus dari lokus-lokus mikrosatelit yang merupakan lokus standar dalam forensik akan dapat digunakan untuk menyusun database DNA. Adanya database DNA akan dapat digunakan untuk membantu dalam identifikasi MR/Mrs X korban suatu peristiwa bencana dengan korban masal atau tindak kejahatan. Data-data yang diperoleh dari penelitian ini juga dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai suplemen bahan pengajaran dalam bidang DNA Forensik, Genetika Bioantropologi dan Evolusi. Penelitian ini diadakan pada masyarakat Bali Aga Tenganan Pegringsingan kabupaten Karangasem dan Sembiran kabupaten Buleleng propinsi Bali. Ekstraksi DNA menggunakan metode ekstraksi Fenol-Khloroform presipitasi Alkohol dari sel darah maupun epitel mukosa mulut selanjutnya diamplifikasi dengan mesin PCR. Sepuluh pasang primer mikrosatelit (short tandem repeat/ STR) autosom digunakan untuk mengamplifikasi DNA pada 10 lokus contoh DNA dari 100 orang probandus yang tidak berhubungan keluarga yang terdiri atas 50 dari orang masyarakat desa Bali Aga Tenganan Pegringsingan dan 50 orang masyarakat Sembiran. Hasil amplifikasi dilalukan pada gel poliakrilamide (PAGE) 6 % bersamaan dengan DNA standar 100 bp ladder dan divisualisasikan dengan pewarnaan perak nitrat. Panjang pita DNA alel-alel ditentukan dengan mengukur migrasi pita DNA hasil PCR pada gel dibandingkan dengan migrasi pita-pita DNA standar 100 bp ladder. Terdapat perbedaan macam alel yang tersebar di antara kedua masyarakat sangat baik bagi kepentingan forensik seperti alel 177pb dan 189pb lokus D2S1338 yang terdapat pada masyarakat Tenganan Pegringsingan tidak ditemukan pada masyarakat Sembiran, demikian juga alel 288 dan 292pb lokus D16S539 sementara hanya ditemukan pada masyarakat Tenganan dan tidak ditemukan pada masyarakat Sembiran, sehingga dapat digunakan sebagai alel penciri khusus masyarakat Tenganan. Demikian juga sebaliknya untuk lokus DYS19 terdapat keistimewaan bahwa alel 208bp hanya ditemukan pada masyarakat Bali Aga Sembiran khususnya pada Dadia Hyang Kumpi Mulianis dan tidak ditemukan pada masyarakat Tenganan Pegringsingan. Keragaman genetik total untuk kedua populasi hampir sama namun yaitu sebesar 0,729 ± 0,23 pada masyarakat Sembiran dan 0,817 ± 0,214 pada masyarakat Tenganan Pegringsingan. Dari hasil penelitian ini juga diperoleh data bahwa semua lokus yang telah berhasil diamplifikasi memberikan kekuatan pembeda (power of discrininati) yang tinggi yaitu antara 0,918 pada lokus D16S539 dan paling tinggi 0,996 pada lokus D3S1358 dengan nilai rata-rata 0,9510. Hal ini mengidikasikan bahwa lokus-lokus tersebut sangat baik digunakan untuk identifikasi di daerah Bali khusunya di kedua masyarakat tersebut karena akan memberikan data yang meyakinkan untuk identifikasi baik untuk kepentingan identifikasi dalam kasus pidana maupun korban masal karena musibah bencana alam. Data lainnya adalah bahwa untuk kekuatan eksklusi belum tinggi walaupun nilainya sudah diatas 0,5 dan nilai iniakan meningkat bila digunakan lebih banyak lokus yang tepat untuk setiap tempat etnis. The potential of housecat as a risk factor for Toxoplasmosis In Pregnant Women in Bali Dwinata, I.M1., I.M. Sutarga2 and I.M. Damriyasa 1 . 1. Centre for Studies on Animal Diseases Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Udayana University Bali Indonesia 2. Study Programme of Public Health, Faculty medicine, Udayana University, Bali Indonesia ABSTRACT Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan that causes zoonoses diseases; the disease is dangerous if suffered by immunodeficiency patients and pregnant women. Primer infection in pregnant women can be cause abortion, Intra Uterine Foetal Dead (IUFD) or born defect. The aim of the study was determine the prevalence of antibody to Toxoplasma gondii among pregnant women in Badung regency Bali. During July 2009 to October 2009, 330 pregnant women were observed and tested for IgG antibody to Toxoplasma gondii by ELISA test, and risk factors were documented. Out of 330 pregnant women, 36 (10.9%) were positive for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. Their average age of the women was 27 years. The seroprevalence was significantly higher in pregnant women who keeping house, frequently consuming lawar and consumption of row meat. Our result indicating that house cat and eating habit to consuming undercooked or row meat is the potential risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in human. Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, housecat, risk factors, pregnant woman KEBUDAYAAN PENGEMBANGAN KRITERIA DESAIN RUMAH SUSUN BERWAWASAN BUDAYA BALI Prof. Ngakan Putu Sueca, Ph.D. Abstract In order to overcome housing defisit in Indonesia, the central government has decided to build 1000 appartment tower. However, the programme of low-income flats (rumah susun) in Bali has been strongly rejected by Balinese from various groups, despite the need for adequate housing of the low income people in urban areas are unavoidable realities. Low income flats are the most possible and the most feasible choice. However, because of this rejection it needs a careful policy. This research aims to know about society perception on low-income flats in Bali and look for culturally based design criteria . It is cross sectional sample survey using multi research method such as structured and indepth interview, focus group discussion and observation. The research results show that the majority of urban people in Bali reject low-income flats and the others accept it. Both groups have their justification and offers opinions what kind low-income flats are suitable for the Balinese. There are several design criteria should be considered for low-income flat in Bali including: tri hita karana (the concept of harmony); sacred profane orientation; public space as reflection of communal life; inner courtyard as basic needs for social, religius and ecological reasons; space for drying clooth is critical;15 M maximum building height; maintaining sacred areas and temples; Balinese style building; built on dense areas; community participation; and construction processes based on Hinduism. KETAHANAN PANGAN EFFECTS OF SUPPLEMENTING A UREA AMMONIATED RICE STRAW WITH UREA MOLASSES BLOCK AND/OR RICE BRAN ON INTAKE AND LIVE WEIGHT CHANGE OF BALI CATTLE I B. Sudana, N. W. Siti and D. P. Candrawati Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Udayana University, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia ABSTRACT A feeding experiment was conducted in which Bali cattle were given a basal diet of urea ammoniated rice straw supplemented either with urea molasses block, rice bran or urea molasses block plus rice bran. The experiment was designed in completely randomized design (CRD) with 5 treatments and 4 animals in every treatment. The objective of the experiment was to examine the effects of supplementation on bodyweight gain and the efficiency of feed conversion in Bali cattle, feed on urea ammoniated rice straw basal diets. Cattle on the supplemented diets produced an average bodyweight gain of 230-326 g/h/d. The highest live weight (326 g/h/d) was observed on cattle given basal diet supplemented with 400 g urea molasses block plus 600 g/h/d of rice bran. The use of urea molasses block as a supplement was superior to rice bran supplement. Although the straw intake of all groups of animals was not significantly different (P>0.05), the supplemented groups used diets more efficiently. The lowest FCR in this experiment was 15.0 observed on cattle given a basal diet of urea ammoniated rice straw, supplemented with 400 g urea molasses block plus 600 g/h/d of rice bran.

Keywords: Bali cattle, urea ammoniated rice straw, urea molasses block, rice bran supplement

The Profile of Estrogen and the Timing of Artificial Insemination in Bali Cattle

Tjok Gde Oka Pemayun, IGNB Trilaksana, Made Kota Budiasa
Laboratory of Veterinary Reproduction FKH- Unud. Jl. PB. Sudirman Denpasar- Bali


The purpose of this study is to profile the estrogen hormone in order to determine the ideal timing for artificial insemination in Bali cattle. The cattle used for this study have given birth one to two times before and have had normal estrous reproductive cycles. The blood sample was taken in twenty-four hour intervals beginning on the seventeenth day of the cycle until the day of estrous. The blood was taken from the jugular vein and was measured using the ELISA technique in order to profile the estrogen. The act of insemination was performed on the day of estrous (day 0), twenty- four hours post-estrous (day 1) and 48 hours post-estrous (day 2). The pregnancy examinations were done through rectal palpations and were confirmed on the 14th, 21st, and 28th day after the insemination using the progesterone hormone profile. The result reveals that the highest estrogen profile acquired at the time of estrous was 61.51 ± 1.00 ng/ml. This value then stabilizes from the 17th to the 21st day and decreases on the 22nd day. The highest percent of pregnancy (100 percent) occurred when insemination was completed twenty-four hours post- estrous, while the lowest percent of pregnancy (0 percent) occurred when insemination was completed forty-eight hours post-estrous. Based on these results one can conclude that the highest estrogen profile is on the day of estrous and the ideal timing for successful artificial insemination is twenty-four hours post-estrous.

Key Words: Estrogen, Artificial Insemination, Bali Cattle

I M Mastika; A.W Puger; IKM Budiasa; dan I M Mudita
Fakultas Peternakan Universitas Udayana
An experiment was carried out to study the method of increasing farm land productivity by integration of Bali cattle in the farming land area (integrated farming system). The site of this experiment was at Penglatan village, Buleleng district ,where most of the farm area only have two seasons for rice plantation and one season for corn or soybean plantation in a year. A total of nine (9) farmers are involved and each of them has about 0.5 ha (0.40-0.55 ha) of farm land. A Complete Randomized Block Design consisted of 3 treatments where those farmers were divided into three groups that was first group with no cattle in their farming land (T0), the second group were given 1 (one) cattle in the farm land (T1) and the third group those given 2 (two) cattle in the farm land (T2) and 3 block replicates were used in this experiment. This experiment was run for 10 months duration. Farm land production, cattle feed production, cattle growth, and gross farmer income were recorded and calculated and used as parameters during the period of the experiment. Result of the experiment showed that soil condition of the crop land used in this experiment was very poor where the C-organic content was 1.25%, below the standard recommendation (2-5%). By keeping one (T1) and two (T2) Bali cattle in the farm land area, the integrated system will provide 2,065.9 and 4,664.7 kg (DM) organic manure (DM) during the period of the experiment. Rice as main crop production for the land without cattle (T0), with one cattle (T1), and two cattle (T2) recorded was 3,514; 3,545 and 3,903 kg per 0.5 ha respectively. There was a significant (11%) increased in rice production for T2 compared to their control (T0) counterpart. During the experimental period, feed waste availability including rice straw for the land without cattle (T0) was 15,403 kg followed by 19,966 kg and 19,946.3 kg for T1 and T2. These figures suggested that the farmer can increase their cattle number up to 4-5 head / farmer in 0.5 ha crops land in 8 month period of fattening. It was interesting to note that by feeding crop waste supplemented with 1 kg of rice bran, Bali cattle daily gain recorded was 0.54-0.55 kg/head/day. The overall gross income of farmers in T0 calculated was Rp 18,140,600,- while farmers in T1 and T2 were Rp 21,841,520,- and Rp 27,867,180,- respectively. These gross farmers income were 20.84% and 53.62% higher for the farmers in T1 and T2 than the farmers having no cattle in their crops land (control – T0). It was concluded that farm land productivity and farmer gross income can be increased significantly by integrating Bali cattle in the crops land area.
Keyword: Bali cattle, Integrated farming system, rice production, feeds availability, income improvement

Peningkatan Produksi dan Mutu Buah Anggur dengan Pemberian Irigasi Tetes dan Pupuk Mineral Plus pada Lahan Kering Kecamatan Gerokgak, Buleleng

. I Nyoman Merit, I Wayan Narka, Ida Bagus Putu Bhayunagiri
Jurusan Agroekoteknologi, Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Udayana.

Research entitle of “Increasing the production and quality of grape yield with drip irrigation and mineral plus fertilizer” is being carried out. The aim of this research was to find out the optimum of irrigation intervals and mineral plus fertilizer application in order to increase production and quality of grape yield. The research was set up for two years program. In the first year, the observation was focused on vegetative growth while yield production will be observed in the second year. Three intervals of irrigation vies 2, 4 and 6 days and mineral plus fertilizer dose (M0, M1 and M2) was tested in nested randomized block design with three replications. Parameter of vegetative growth such as plant height, stem diameter and number of branch was measured regularly. Supporting parameters such as soil moisture content, soil water potential, plant water status as indicated by relative water content (RWC) was also measured. In the second year, production and quality of yield such as number of bunch per plant, number of fruit per bunch, fruit texture and sugar content of fruit will be measured.
The results showed that soil moisture content was not significantly affected by irrigation intervals. There was a trend that soil moisture content has decreased when interval of water supply increased. There were no significant differences between treatments on the growth of grape plant. Plant height and diameter of stem were slightly lower in treatment I3 compare to I1 and I2. Plant under I3 never approach stress as indicated by relative water content (RWC) which was about 60-80 %. A similar pattern was observed on the effect of mineral plus fertilizer. There were no significant differences between Mo, M1 and M2, but there was a trend that plant under M2 was taller than it was in Mo or M1. The growth of grape plant was relatively faster as indicated by plant height, diameter of stem and number of branch. This might be due to a vapourable microclimate and good soil conditions.
Key words: grape, drip irrigation, mineral plus fertilizers.

I Made Narka Tenaya
Made Antara
Ketut Budi Susrusa
Ni Wayan Sri Astiti

The purpose of this research is to learn about food insecurity in Bali, as measured by: 1). Mapping the food insecure areas to the district level, 2). Learning about the background of the occurrence of food insecurity, and 3). Identifying the characteristics and factors causing the occurrence of food insecurity of the district level in the regencies in Bali.
As for Food Availability per district in four underdeveloped regencies in Bali in 2009, seven districts (29%) are categorized as undergoing food deficit, that is: Dawan, Kintamani, Banjar, Buleleng, Kubutambahan, Tejakula, and Manggis. Meanwhile, 17 other districts (71%) have a surplus of food. Food and livelihoods Access which are based on population average from the lowest to the highest respectively are: Klungkung regency of 21.0%, Bangli of 23.8%, Buleleng of 28.3%, and Karangasem of 34.3%. The highest Life expectancy is in Buleleng (72.40 years) and the lowest is in Karangasem (67.70 years). the lowest Infants Weight below standard is in Bangli, followed by Klungkung, Buleleng, and Karangasem as the highest. The lowest Illiterate women rate is in Klungkung regency, followed by Buleleng, Bangli and Karangasem as the highest. The Lowest infant mortality is in Buleleng, followed by Karangasem, Bangli, and the highest is in Klungkung. The Population without access to clean water is the lowest in Bangli, followed by Karangasem, Buleleng, and the highest in Klungkung.
The highest determinate component of food insecurity in Bali is the variable of illiterate women rate (91.69%) and the lowest is the population below poverty line (60.80%). Four of the 12 determinate components of food insecurity in Bali, in order, are: infant weight below standard, infant mortality, areas without forests, and the percentage of population below the poverty line variable. Based on the above variables, each district in four regencies in Bali can be categorized into two: highly food insecure districts, that is: Nusa Penida, Klungkung, Dhawan,Susut, Bangli, Tembuku, Kintamani, Seririt, Busungbiu, Banjar, Sukasada, Buleleng, Kubutambahan, Rendang, Sidemen, Manggis, Karangasem, Abang, Bebandem, Selat, Kubu, and three food insecure districts, that is: Grokgak, Tejakula, and Sawan.

Keywords: Food insecurity, Life expectancy, Food access


Alih fungsi lahan sawah/subak terus terjadi di Bali. Rata-rata alih fungsi lahan sawah di Bali 800 ha/tahun, setara dengan kehilangan dua subak, berdampak pada berkurangnya produksi 6.240 ton beras/tahun. Diikuti berkurangnya persediaan pangan 46.222 orang/tahun. Perda tata ruang selam ini belum mampu mengendalikan alih fungsi lahan dengan berbagai permasalahannya, dan belum cukup untuk melindungi lahan sawah sebagai produksi pangan. Untuk itu diperlukan peraturan perundanganundangan yang lebih mengikat, agar tidak kehilangan palemahan subak, yang berdampak pada hilangnya pawongan dan tidak terurusnya parahyangan. Keadaan ini telah dan sedang terjadi di berbagai wilayah, terutama di subak yang beradada di pusat-pusat kota dan sekitarnya.
Lunturnya filosofi Tri Hita Karana dan laju degradasi ajeg Bali akan terur berlangsung, akibat dari kehilangan palemahan sebagai tempat berpijak kebudayaan Bali dan dengan alasan ekonomi jangka pendek. Para keturunanannya, kurang memahami nilai sosial budaya agraris yang dibangun oleh nenek moyangnya pada abad ke tujuh, dan berlangsung secara berkesinambungan. Lahan sawah beririgasi teknis, semi teknis dan teras bangku yang kokoh untuk menciptakan ekosistem persawahan yang lestari, dibangun secara tradisional dengan sistem subaknya. Ini diakui sebagai hasil karya nenek moyang orang Bali yang maha monumental. Masyarakat Bali menetapkannya sebagai kearifan lokal, dipuji di tingkat nasional dan internasional. Oleh karena itu Pemerintah Daerah Provinsi Bali telah menganggarakan dan memberikan bantuan hibah kepada subak-subak, guna melestarikan dan meningkatkan nilai ekonomi wilayah.
Lahan persawahan sebagai warisan leluhur Orang Bali, dan budaya agraris, secara estafet diberikan ke keturunannya yang mempunyai kewajiban terhadap leluhurnya. Lahan sawah yang subur di lereng volkanis dengan arsitektur bentang alam yang sangat unik dan dilengkapi dengan berbagai prosesi budaya di dalamnya, perlu dilindungi. Ajeg Bali akan terlaksanan bila masyarakat Bali komitmen terhadap pelestarian sumberdaya alam (SDA), sumberdaya manusia (SDM), dan pelestarian budaya agraris, sebagai cikal bakal berkembangan kepariwisataan Bali. Dalam jangka pendek, kelestarian subak dimungkinkan bila kesejahteraan petani terpenuhi. Pemerintah mensubsidi pupuk dan berbagai program guna peningkatkan produktifitas lahan pertanian pangan. Namun rendahnya daya saing produk pertanian, terutama gabah, maka tidak diminati para generasi muda. .
Era Otonomi Daerah (OTDA), dengan seluruh kewajiban dan kewenangnnya dalam Undang, undang (UU 32 tahun 2004) dan Peraturan Pemerintah (PP) No. 38 tahun 2007, serta melaksanakan pembangunan sesuai dengan yang diamanatkan dalam berbagai Undang-undang, dinataranya adalah Penataan Ruang (UU No. 26 tahun 2007) dan Perilindungan lahan pertanian pangan berkelanjutan (UU No. 41tahun 2009), dimaksudkan untuk melestarikan sumberdaya pertanian, sebagai basis ketahanan pangan lokal, daerah dan nasional, yang pada gilirannya dapat mempertahankan jatidiri orang Bali dan Bangsa Indonesia.
Metode kepustakaan, review, survei, pendampingan (motivator, inovator,fasilitator, dan komunikator), dan model pemberdayaan masyarakat: [participatory rural appraisal (PRA), enterpreneurship capacity building (ECB), technology transfer (TT) dan information technology (IT)]. Perekaman data subak, SDA, SDM dan usaha pelestarian dan pengendalian subak, serta penyusunan data base subak dengan menggunakan citra satelit dan system informasi geografis (SIG), digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Teknologi tepat guna (penambahan pupuk buatan, dan pupuk alam/ mineral plus) di enam subak terpilih sebagai lokasi percontohan dimaksudkan untuk meningkatkan produksi padi dan produksi pangan di wilayahnya.
Hasil yang diharapkan selama tiga tahun adalah: (1) Meningkatnya produktivitas lahan dan produksi padi melalui penambahan pupuk mineral plus yang berimplikasi terhadap meningkatnya pendapatan petani, (2) Data base subak: pemetaan subak, (3) terciptanya formulasi pupuk mineral plus untuk padi sawah dan tanaman hortikultura, (4) Kemampuan kelompok tani meningkat, (5) Draf pedoman pengendalian alih fungsi lahan sawah berbasis masyarakat, beserta petunjuk teknisnya. Sejumlah program dihasilkan dalam penelitian ini terkait dengan pengendalian alih fungsi lahan dan peningkatan pendapatan petani menuju ketahanan pangan nasional. Dalam tahun pertama difokuskan pada butir 1 dan 2, arah ke butir 3, 4, dan 5. Perekaman data base subak (SDA dan SDM), sistim usahatani sawah, perekaman produktivitas lahan, persepsi masyarakat tentang pelestarian dan pencegahan alih fungsi lahan, pengujian berbagai jenis pupuk untuk menemukan dosis dan jenis pupuk optimal.
Alih Fungsi Lahan sawah /subak Kabupaten Tabanan terus terjadi dari tahun ketahun. Selama 30 tahun terjadi konversi lahan sawah seluas 2537 ha ( 84,57ha /tahun). Banyaknya subak yang mempunyai luas wilayah kurang dari 10 ha, terdapat di wilayah pinggiran kota. Peningkatan luasan terjadi pada tahun 2004, akibat dari pemanfaatan tanah terlantar yang telah dimiliki investor di kawsaan priwisata Soka dan Tanah Lot sejak tahun 1989.
Pengalaman yang dimiliki oleh para Pekaseh, mengharapkan bahwa Peranan pekaseh tidak sahja dalam proses produksi usahatani tanaman pangan (padi sawah). Namun juga menghendaki keterlibatannya dalam proses jual beli tanah sawah, untuk mengetahui kepemilikan tanah.
Pelibatan masyarakat aktif dan secara intensif dari para pemangku kepentingan (stakeholders) sebagai entry point perencanaan, pelaksanaan, pengawasan, dan penilaian perundang-undangan dan peraturan yang ada. Pelibatannya tercantum dalam penataan ruang wilayah (RTRW), penatagunaan tanah, pemanfaatan penggunaan tanah dan pengawasan penggunaan tanah, pemanfatan tanah-tanah terlantar. Perencanaan penggunaan tanah yang diartikan sebagai pola pergiliran tanaman di lahan subak dan perwilayahannya diartikan sebagai tempek yang terkait dengan pola pergiliran penggunaan air irigasi.
Peranan pekaseh dan ketersediaan air sangat menentukan pola pergiliran tanaman, dan mampu dilaksanakan selama berpuluh dan beratus tahun secara berkesinambungan. Sampai saat ini pekaseh belum mempunyai kewenangan untuk mengetahui proses jual beli tanah, sehingga data kepemilikan tanah sangat sulit didapatkan. Pekaseh hanya menegetahui profil petani, baik sebagai peani pemilik tanah, maupun sebagai petani penggarap. Status petani penggarap di kabupaten Tabanan mencapai 31 %, bahkan di daerah pinggiran kota dan di daerah kawasan pariwisata didominasi oleh petani penggara. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa penyerapan berbagai program pemerintah untuk peningkatan produksi masih belum optimal. Dosiss pupuk paket yang ditetapkan diberbagai wilayah kurang memperhatikan ketersediaan hara tanah dan kebutuhan tanaman. Ketersediaan unsur Natrium (N) dan Phosfor (P) yang tergolong sangat rendah rendah, ketersediaan unsur Kalium (K) yang tinggi sampai sangat tinggi, kandungan Corganik sedang sampai tinggi, baik di lokasi percobaan, maupun di wilayah lainnya. Hasil analisis tanah dan keragaman produksi padi di lapangan, seharusnya di seluruh wilayah Kabuapten Tabanan tidak memerlukan pupuk K, namun yang dibutuhkan adalah pupuk N dan P, sesuai dengan kebutuhan tanaman urea ( 200- 250 kg/ha), P2O5 (60 kg/ha), setara dengan 400 kg phoska (15% P2O5, 15% N dan 15% K2O, 10% S), serta ikutannya berupa butiran batu kapur lebih dari 40%. Rendahnya kandungan N dan P pada pupuk phonska, serta adanya pupuk K, kurang tepat diberikan untuk tanah-tanah di Bali, karena kandungan kaliumnya tinggi.
Pupuk paket (200 kg urea/ha +250 kg phonska), dosisi ini menunjukkan adany kekurangan unsur P yang dibutuhan oleh tanaman. Demikian pul kebutuhan akan unsur hara makro seperti Ca dan Mg belum diakomodir dalam pupuk paket. Penambahan penambahan pupuk alam (mineral kapur bukit, garam dapur dan pasir G. Agung), serta kombinasinya untuk mencukupi kebutuhan hara yang dibutuhkan oleh tanaman. Penambahan pupuk alam berupa mineral kapur, garam dapur dan pasir G. Agung ditujuakan untuk memnuhi kebutuhan tanaman.
Uji produksi pada berbagai tinggi tempat tidak berpengaruh terhadap perbedaan produksi padi sawah. Produksi lebih banyak dipengaruhi oleh ketersediaan air irigasi. Lokasi percobaan yang terindikasi kekurangan air seperti di wilayah bagian pesisir barat, menunjukakn produktivitas yang rendah (Subak Bulungdaya). Sedangkan subak-subak yang mendapatkan air yang terus menerus sepanjang tahun seperti di daerah pesisir pantai selatan bagian timur, menunjukkan produksi lebih tinggi dari bagian barat yang kekurangan air. Air merupakan faktor pembatas utama dalam sistem pertanian subak. Oleh karena lembaga ini eksistensinya dapat teraga apabila masih adanya sistem pengelolaan air irigasi. Namun bial tidak ada lagi ar irigasi yang dikelola, yang berarti lahan sawah tadah hujan, maka perana kelembagaan akan melemah.
Kombinasi pupuk paket NPK +2 ton bahan organik/ha + 2 ton kapur bukit/ha + 2ton pasir /ha+ 200 kg garam dapur/ha), memperoleh hasil yang tinggi bila dibanding dengan kombinasi lainnya, serta pupuk tunggal ( NPK, Organik, Mineral). Produksi gabah kering panen (GKP) dapat ditingkatkan sebesar 79,4 %, bial diberikan pupuk campuan antara pupuk buatan, pupuk organik dan pupuk alami. Penambahan pasir sangat jelas meningkatkan produksi GKP. Sedangkan hanya pemberian pupuk organik (bokhasi), dan pupuk mineral secara tunggal, produksinya sama atau lebih rendah dari kontrol. Sebaliknya kadar gabah hampa tertinggi dicapai pada pemberian pupuk organik. Pengujian di lima lokasi menunjukkan bahwa produksi padi dapat ditingkatkan dengan menggunakan pupuk campuran NPK, organik dan mineral.
Hasil pengujian padi sawah varietas Ciherang, menunjukan bahwa produksi padi di empat lokasi percobaan (kecuali di subak Bulungdaya) berkisar antara 4,89 ton GKP/ha – 9,33 ton GKP /ha. Produksi rata-rata 6, 95 ton/ha. Subak Bulungdaya tidak disertakan dalam menhitung rata-rata produksi, karena mengalami kekurangan air dan terkena serangan penggerek batang dan tungro.
Pendapatan sisa usaha tani berkisar antara Rp 4 – Rp 12 juta/ha/tahun (Rp 40 - Rp 120 ribu /are), belum terhitung tenaga kerja, pajak, dan sewa tanah. Pendapatan petani meningkat antara 20% sampai dengan 79% (1,39 ton GKP – 5,45 ton GKP) setara dengan Rp 3, 475 juta – Rp 13, 625 juta per ha /panen (Rp 34.750 – Rp 136.000 per are per panen). Berdasarkan pengaruh pupuk terhadap kenaikan produksi dan perhitungan nilai ekonomi, dosis pupuk 200 kg urea dan 250 kg Phonska dikombinasikan dengan 2 ton/ha bokhasi, 2 ton/ha pupuk mineral dan 2 ton/ha pasir memberikan hasil produksi maksimal dan merupakan dosis yang optimal terhadap peningkatan produksi padi.
Staus petani penggarap mencapai > 50 %, banyak ditemukan di daerah pesisir pantai selatan. Daerah ini status tanahnya telah dikuasai oleh investor sejak tahun 1989, dan ditelantarkan. Petani dengan mediasi desa adat, mengolah kembali lahan sawah yang terlantar sejak tahun 2000. Demikian pula daerah yang tanahnya dikuasai oleh keluarga puri, seperti di peren dan di Kerambitan.
Sebagaian besar petani (99%) , dan kalangan stakeholer menyatakan perlu melestarikan subak, untuk menuju ajeg Bali dan mempertahankan warisan budaya agraris walaupun tidak seimbang dengan nilai ekonominya. Harapan petani sangat sederhana, subak akan lestari bila air irigasi tetap tersedia, pupuk tetap disubsidi dan adanya peningkatan harga gabah.
Pembangunan ekonomi pertanian dan regulasi hukum merupakan stategi utama dalam pengendalian alih fungsi lahan berbasis masyarakat. Kebijakan ekonomi yang bertumpu pada peningkatan produksi padi sawah dengan penerapan teknologi tepat guna, diikuti dengan program peningkatan SDM petani, dan dilanjutkan dengan usaha pelestarian SDA, terutam ktersediaan air irigasi.
Pendekatan hukum yang mengatur tentang pelestarian subak dan pengendalian alih fungsi lahan berbasis masyarakat, dilakukan melalui penetapan kriteria lahan subak, (lahan subak lestari, lahan subak konversi terbatas, dan lahan subak terkonversi) penyusunan draf pengendalian alih fungsi lahan perupakan prioritas utama untuk melaksankan UU Penataan Ruang dan UU Perilindungan Lahan Pertanian Lahan Sawah Berkenjutan. Selanjutnya dilakukan pendampingan terhadap penyusunan awig-awig, agar dapat dilaksanakan bersama masayarakat tani.
Berbagai program terkait dengan penyusunan regulasi yang dapat dilakukan adalah: penyusunan draf pengendalian alih fungsi lahan, perencanaan dan penetapan kawasan dan lahan pertanian pangan berkelanjutan ( lahan subak lestari). Kebijakan dan strategi pengendalian alih fungi lahan berbasis masyarakat perlu diakomodir dalam RPJP, RPJM Kabupaten tabanan.
Kriterian subak didasarkan pada lima komponen, yaitu; (1) posisi lokasi subak, (2) bentuk wilayah dan relief, (3) ketinggian tempat, (4) lereng asal, dan jarak dari pust kota. Butir 1,2 , 3 dan 4 terkait dengan fungsi ekologis sebagai daerah tangkapan hujan, resapan air dan tingkat kerawanan bencana longsor, landsekap (bentang alam), dan perlindungan sumbedaya alam pertanian. Butir 5 mengakomodir keperluan persediaan lahan untuk pembangunan. Kelima komponen tersebut di bobot (1 -5), dengan komponenya di skor dinialai 1 – 3. Bobot dan skor dengan memperhatikan faktor utama dan faktor pendukung, Total nilai lahan subak lestari ( ≥ 25 ), Lahan subak konversi terbatas ( 16-25) dan lahan subak terkonversi (≤ 16).
Ketersediaan air minimal 6 bulan untuk dua kali tanam, merupakan kunci utama dalam usaha pelestarian subak. Subsidi pupuk dan saprotan tetap diperlukan secara berkesinambungan. Faktor lainnya adalah keterlibatan petani (pekaseh dan krama subak) dalam usaha pelestarian subak perlu diikutsertakan dan dalam proses perencanaan, pengendalian dan pengawasan alih fungsi lahan.
Ketahanan pangan dapat dilakukan apabila diterapkan sistem insentif dan disinsentif yang tertuang dalam UU No 41 tahun 2009 seperti subsidi pupuk, pembelian gabah yang layak, perbaikan dan pemeliharaan saluran irigasi, dan jalan usahatani, bantuan teknis inovasi teknologi, pembebasan atau keringanan pajak PBB lahan sawah, bantuan modal merupakan instrumen yang dapat melestarikan subak dan pengendalian alih fungsi lahan subak. Berbagai jenis insentif tersebut perlu dilakukan oleh pemerintah daerah dan pusat secara terus-menerus, guna melestarikan subak dan mencegah alih fungsi lahan sawahnya.
Pembangunan pertanian didarkan atas tersedianya data dasar yang terkini. Penyusunan Data base subak dibangun menggunakan teknologi citra satelit (Quick Bird) dan diproses melalui teknologi GIS ( MapInfo). Keterbatasan data base yang diperoleh dilapangan, memerlukan inventarisasi dan diskripsi subak lebih mendalam lagi.
Berbagai produk hukum yang terkait dengan usaha pelestarian lahan sawah dan pengendalian alih fungsi lahan, serta penggunaan dan pemanfaatan tanah-tanah terlantar perlu disinkronkan dengan Undang-undang No 41 tahun 2009 tentang Perlindungan Lahan Pertanian Pangan Berkelanjutan yang ditetapkan pada tanggal 14 Oktober 2009. Dalam UU tersebut Pemda diwajibkan untuk memetakan kawasan lahan pertanian pangan berkelanjutan dan persediaan lahan kawasan subak abadi dan atau lahan subak lestari. Lahan subak lestari dan cadangan lahan subak lestari. Pemda diharuskan untuk melaporkan keberadaan lahan tersebut setiap tahun kepada DPRD kabupaten dan secara berjenjang sampai ke tingkat DPR.
Implikasi dari UU 41 tahun 2009, Kabupaten Tabanan sebagai lumbung padi Provinsi Bali, Perda RTRW Kabupaten tabanan perlu dilengkapi dengan kawasan subak abadi/lestari, lahan subak lestari dan cadangan subak lestari, dengan tujuan mempertahankan swasembada pangan lokal, berimplikasi terhadap ketahanan pangan daerah dan nasional.
Perencanaan dan penetapan lahan subak lestari, pelaksanaan tanah sawah, pengawasan pemanfaatannya, seta pengendalian alih fungsi lahan melalui mekansime perizinan diperlukan peranan masyarakat. Pemda Kabupaten Tabanan perlu merencanakan dan menetapkan kawasan lahan pertanian pangan berkelanjutan/ kawasan subak lestari, lahan subak lestari dan cadangan lahan subak lestari yang dalam UU No 41 tahun 2009 diwajibkan paling lama 2 tahun ( tahun 2011) , Peraturan dan mekanisme pemberian insentif dan disinsentif.
Pedoman peraturan perizinan terkait dengan pelestarian subak dan kebijakan pengendalian alih fungsi lahan subak dicantumkan partisipasi masyarakat tani, terutama Pekaseh dan Bendesa Adat.
Peningkaatn produksi padi di Kabupaten Tabanan selain melalui pemupukan berimbang, juga memanfatankan tanah-tanah terlantar eks lahan sawah yang sudah dikuasai oleh investor. Petani dan pemerintah dapat memproses lahan tersebut menjadi tanah negara, sesuai dengan peraturan perundang-undangan yang berlaku.
Ketersediaan air, yang berupa air irigasi , merupakan pembatas utama dalam pelestarian subak. Faktor lainnya adalah harga dan ketersedian pupuk, serta harga gabah. Penetapan harga gabah oleh pemerintah, perlu dipaketkan dengan penetapan garga gabah. Bantuan permodalan usahatani, masih tetap diperlukan secara berkesinambungan, guna melestarikan lahan subak secara berkelanjutan.
Pemda Kabupaten Tabanan, masih melaksanakan proses perizinan lokasi, dan surat persetujuan prinsip dalam pelaksanaan realisasi penanaman modal di daerah. Izin tersebut sebagain besar berada di lahan subak produktif. Ketentuan izin lokasi tidak diperlukan apabila tanahnya telah dimiliki oleh investor. Demikian pula surat persetujuan prinsip dengan adanya Inpres No 23 tahun 1998. Pelaksanaan izin lokasi masih diproses di Kantor Pertanahan. Ini menunjukkan bahwa Pemda Kabupaten Tabanan perlu melaksanakan urusan wajib sembilan kewenangan di bidang pertanahan.
Adanya ketentuan pidana yang mengikat dalam UU Penataan Ruang yang mencapai Rp 500.000 – Rp 500.000.000, dan dalam UU Perlindungan Lahan Pertanian Pangan Berkenjutan antara Rp 1 –Rp 7 milyar, yang ditambahkan dengan pidana penjara antara 5 – 7 tahun, apabila terjadi pelanggaran, baik perizinan, maupun penggunaan dan pemanfaatan lahan yang tidak sesuai dengan ketetapan yang diundangkan, maka dalam pemerian izin diperlukan kajian yang mendalam. Peranan masyarakat sangat dibutuhkan untuk pengawasan pelaksanakan berbagai regulasi yang terkait dengan pelstarian dan pengendalian alih fungsi lahan subak.


I Gusti Ngurah Santosa, Gede Menaka Adnyana, I Ketut Kartha Dinata, dan
I Gusti Alit Gunadi
Staf Pengajar pada Program Studi Agroekoteknologi, Fakultas Pertanian,
Universitas Udayana, Denpasar, Bali


Lack of food is responsible for bad nutrition, health and at the same time decreases the quality of human resources. In addition, it also lead to political, economic, security, and socio-political instability. deficiency significantly affected the malnutrition, healthy, and also decreasing the quality of the human resource. Another serious effect of the food crisis was socioeconomic instability and weakness on national defense. Therefore, the food security should be stable and sustainable.
Land and water resources play an important role to keep the sustainability of food production. However, these resources tend to decrease because of developing infrastructure as well building, road, industry, tourism, property, and other purposes. In two decades, it is predicted that paddy field converting in Indonesia was about 10,000 hectares per year. On the other hand, the need of food tends to increase because of population growth. So that, study has to be done to get some information about paddy field area, water availability, irrigation facilities, and crops production. The location of study was in one unit of irrigation area namely Mambal Irrigation Area (MIA). This study was conducted by survey method which supported by rice technological package experiment. The field experiment was done by some modified input such as younger seedling, minimum dosage of complete fertilizer and minimum irrigation water. These treatments were compared to farmer’s technology, and the result was analyzed by t Test.
The result of the study showed that the paddy field converting was 38.17 % (4,820 ha to 2,980 ha) in a period of about 30 years in Mambal Irrigation Area and paddy field converting in Subak Sempidi was 26 % (135 ha to 99 ha) in a period of 24 years.
The supply of irrigation water in Mambal Irrigation Area decreased 15 % (from 3,596 l/sec to 3,038 l/sec) in a period of about 30 years. Whereas in Subak Sempidi irrigation water supply increased 26 % (from 168 l/sec to 212 l/sec) from year 2005 to 2008. As a consequent, supply of irrigation water increased from 1.70 l/sec/ha on 2005 – 2007 to 2.14 l/sec/ha in 2008.
Paddy yield on experiment of technological package was 12.39 ton/ha and it was 11.47 ton/ha of harvest dry unhulled rice by the farmer’s technology. By conducting the research, it was suggested that technological package have to be done by two or three times of cultivation to identify the stability of each harvest yiled.

Key words: Paddy field, water resources, and technological package


Oleh :
I Nyoman Wijaya, Wayan Adiartayasa, Made Sritamin
and Ketut Ayu Yuliadhi



The research was conducted at the field of Taro village (600 m above the sea) Gianyar regency and Katung village (1200 m above the sea) Bangli regency and at the Laboratory of Biotechnology Faculty of Agricultural Udayana University in April 2009 to October 2009. The purpose of the research were to investigate population dynamic of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama and other insects that were assosiated with citrus cv. siam; The D. citri life table at 20 oC and 25 oC; The molecular detection of CVPD patogen in its vector, other phytophagous insects on citrus cv.siam and kemuning [Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack.] and Made to seedling free CVPD. The result of this study showed that in six month period there was one peak of D. citri population which was associated with the flushing period of citrus at Taro as well Katung villages. The peak of D. citri population of Taro village was higher than those of Katung village. The population growth of D. citri performed better at 25 oC compared to 20 oC. The research revealed that kemuning could serve as a source of infection because it is also a host of CVPD disease as well as of D. citri. Two species of parasitoids and four spesies of predators found in the field may contribute to the suppression of D. citri population. The parasitoids identified as were Tamarixia radiata Wat. and Diaphorencyrtus alligharensi Shaffe, whereas the predators were Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Phiddipus sp., Menochilus sexmaculatus Fabricius and Oxyopes javanus Thorell. T. radiata had been proved as an efective nymph parasitoid that could suppress the population development of D. citri in citrus orchads. Toxoptera citricidus Kirkaldy and Maleuterpes dentipes Hell. were not proven to contain CVPD disease.

Key word : Population dynamic , Life table, PCR, Diaphorina citri, CVPD.

(Anacardium occidentale Linn)
1) I G.N Agung,2) Duniaji, A.S, 3)W. Wisaniyasa dan 4)Nyoman Puspawati
Department of Food Science and Technology Udayana University, Bali


A title of research is the effect of addition sugar cane and sugar palm to characteristic of cashew fruits syrup. The aim of research was to know the effect of sugar cane and sugar palm to sucrose, glucose and fructose content and characteristics of cashew fruits syrup. Research were conducted using complete Random Design with addition sugar cane and sugar palm consist of five levels (R1=100%:0%), (R2=75%:25%),R3=50%:50%, R4=75%:2% and R5=0%:100%. The variable observation of syrup characteristic such as total of sugar (sucrose, glucose and fructose), vitamin C, contamination of mold and yeast, microbial pathogens, metal content and sensory evaluation.
Result of research showed that the addition of 100% sugar cane (R1) giving total of sucrose 60.58%, glucose 6.37% and fructose 3.42%. The characteristic of cashew fruits syrup product were allowable as well as The Indonesian National Standard (SNI) with total of sugar more than 65%, vitamin C 61.60 mg per 100 g and total of mold and yeast were not more than 50 cfu/ml and were not found of microbial pathogens such as E. coli, salmonella sp and Staphylococcus aurous sp. This cashew fruit syrup was also overall accepted by panelist.
Keywords: Cashew-fruit syrup, sucrose, glucose and fructose

Kajian Teknologi Atmosfer Termodifikasi dan Terkendali untuk Memperlambat Penurunan Mutu Buah Mangga Arumanis Selama Penyimpanan

I Made Supartha Utama*, Yohanes Setiyo, Ida Ayu Rina Pratiwi Puja
Jurusan Teknik Pertanian, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Udayana, Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Badung, Bali, Phone/fax: +62 361 701801
Nyoman Semadi Antara
Jurusan Teknologi Industri Pertanian, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Udayana, Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Badung, Bali, Phone/fax: +62 361 701801

Indonesia adalah salah satu produsen Mangga (Mangifera indica L.) dunia dengan kontribusi masih relatif kecil yaitu sekitar 5%. Negara produsen terbesar adalah India (51%). Di Asia, negara penghasil mangga yang cukup berarti selain Indonesia adalah Cina (9%), Thailand (6%), Pakistan (4%) dan Philipina (2%). Jumlah ekspor mangga dari Indonesia mengalami peningkatan berarti dari tahun ke tahun, namun dibandingkan dengan produksinya sendiri maka ekspor tersebut masih sangat rendah, yaitu (0.07%) (BPS, 2007). Peningkatan ekspor terjadi karena berkembangnya pasar-pasar baru di Timur Tengah seperti Uni Emirat Arab, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar dan Bahrain.
Ada dua kultivar mangga di Indonesia yang mempunyai potensi untuk lebih dikembangkan sebagai komoditas ekspor yaitu varietas Arumanis dan Gedong Gincu. Mangga Arumanis tersebar hampir di seluruh propinsi di Indonesia. Mangga Arumanis mempunyai keunggulan karena citarasanya yang khas dengan tekstur lembut, creamy dengan sedikit serat. Peluang untuk ekspor jenis mangga ini sangat tinggi karena jenis yang sama tidak dihasilkan oleh negara penghasil dan pengekspor mangga dunia yaitu India, meksiko dan negara amerika latin lainnya.
Permasalahan penting untuk pengembangan pasar ekspor, khususnya untuk pasar international yang jaraknya jauh seperti Negara Timur Tengah, Eropa dan Amerika Serikat, adalah biaya yang tinggi karena pengirimannya menggunakan pesawat udara. Uji coba dengan menggunakan container berpendingin (reefer container) dengan pengiriman melalui laut ke Timur Tengah yang membutuhkan waktu tempuh 16-21 hari, belum memberikan hasil maksimal. Hal ini disebabkan, di samping adanya kerusakan dingin akibat kurang seragamnya kematangan juga adanya buah yang telah masak sesampainya di negara tujuan. Kalaupun dapat dipasarkan, namun waktu pemasaran di Negara tujuan relative sangat singkat. Uji coba pengiriman lewat laut telah pula dilakukan oleh Pemerintah Australia Utara untuk mangga Kengsington Pride ke Guangzhou di tahun 2001 (Thom et al., 2002) dengan permasalahan utama yang dihadapi adalah melembeknya buah (fruit softening), karena proses pemasakan.
Dengan perkembanga teknologi sekarang ini dan permasalahan ekspor di atas, perusahan-perusahan pelayaran telah mengembangkan container berpendingin dengan konsentrasi gas oksigen (O2) dan karbondioksida (CO2) dapat dikendalikan di dalam atmosfer container atau disebut Controlled Atmosphere-Reefer Container (CARC). Hal ini bertujuan untuk mengatasi permasalahan di atas terutama untuk pemasaran buah mangga dengan jarak relatif jauh. Untuk dapat menggunakan CARC, sangat diperlukan penelitian-penelitian untuk mendapatkan kondisi optimum kombinasi kedua gas tersebut untuk spesifik varietas mangga, seperti halnya mangga Arumanis.
Teknik manipulasi atmosfer sekitar komoditi atau produk bertujuan untuk mengendalikan metabolisme produk sehingga masa simpan dapat diperpanjang. Selain dengan cara atmosfer terkendali (controlled atmosphere) dimana konsentrasi gas O2 dan/atau CO2 dijaga pada suatu konsentrasi yang diinginkan, cara dengan memodifikasi atmosfer dengan menggunakan bahan pengemas plastic film juga telah dikembangkan. Permeabilitas film terhadap gas O2 dan CO2 merupakan factor penting untuk menjaga agar tercipta kondisi konsentrasi kesetimbangan dari kedua gas tersebut yang mampu memperlambat laju respirasi. Pengemasan dengan plastic dapat dilakukan secara individu atau sekelompok/unit tertentu produk. Teknik yang dikenal dengan nama modified atmosphere packaging. Khusus untuk produk yang dikemas secara individu dikenal dengan nama Individual sealed packaging, banyak dieksplorasi dan telah digunakan untuk produk hortikultura sub-tropis.
Memperhatikan manfaat dari teknologi controlled dan modified atmosphere tersebut, maka ekspolari pemanfaatannya untuk buah-buah tropis potensial sangat penting dilakukan. Salah satu produk buah tropis yang mempunyai pasar potensial baik di dalam mapun luar negeri adalah buah mangga Arumanis. Kajian kemungkinan penggunaan kedua teknologi tersebut terhadap buah mangga Arumanis telah dilakukan di Laboratorium Pascapanen, Program Studi Teknik Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Udayana mulai bulan September sampai Desember 2009.
Teknik modifikasi atmosfer dilakukan dengan meragamkan jenis film plastic yang digunakan untuk mengemas buah mangga Arumanis secara individu. Jenis plastic tersebut low density polyethylene (LDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), dan polyprophylene (PP) dengan ketebalan sama 0,02 mm. Penyimpanan dilakukan pada dua kondisi suhu berbeda, yaitu suhu dingin (12 + 1oC) dan suhu kamar (28+2oC).
Penelitian atmosfer terkendali menggunakan empat ragam kombinasi gas yaitu 5% O2 dan 5% CO2; 5% O2 dan 10% CO2; 10% O2 dan 5% CO2; 10% O2 dan 10% CO2. Empat kombinasi komposisi gas yang khusus dibeli dengan tabung berbeda dialirkan secara terkendali (controlled flow through system) dengan menggunakan double stage regulator pada masing-masing tabung ke dalam gas tight plastic chambers di dalam cold storage dimana di dalamnya ditempatkan buah mangga Arumanis. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada dua suhu seperti pada penelitian modifikasi atmosfer di atas.
Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa perbedaan jenis film plastik untuk pengemasan individu dan kombinasi konsentrasi gas O2 dan CO2 untuk atmosfer terkendali tidak memberikan pengaruh secara berarti terhadap mutu dan masa simpan buah mangga Arumanis yang disimpan pada suhu dingin. Perlakuan pengemasan individu dan atmosfer terkendali lebih baik atau bermanfaat untuk menurunkan laju proses kemunduran mutu buah mangga Arumanis dibandingkan buah tanpa pengemasan pada penyimpanan suhu dingin. Penyimpanan pada suhu kamar, ragam jenis film plastic untuk pengemasan individu dan kombinasi konsentrasi gas O2 dan CO2 untuk atmosfer terkendali memberikan perbedaan nyata terhadap mutu dan masa simpan buah mangga Arumanis pada awal periode penyimpanan, terlebih lagi dibandingkan dengan buah control. Namun setelah sepuluh hari penyimpanan pada suhu kamar, seluruh buah mengalami pemasakan dan adanya kondensasi uap air pada permukaan dalam pengemasan dan chamber yang digunakan untuk menempatkan buah pada penelitian atmosfer terkendali, memicu pertumbuhan jamur pada buah. Sehingga kedua teknologi tersebut menjadi tidak bermanfaat bila penyimpanan lebih dari 10 hari pada suhu kamar. Penggunaan suhu dingin tetap sebagai terbaik untuk mengendalikan laju metabolisme dan memperpanjang masa simpan buah mangga Arumanis. Teknologi modifikasi atmosfer dengan pengemasan individu dan atmosfer terkendali yang diterapkan terhadap buah mangga Arumanis yang disimpan pada suhu dingin bermanfaat untuk mengendalikan laju transpirasi air buah yang rendah, sehingga masa simpan buah mangga Arumanis dapat sampai 40-45 hari.
Penelitian ini menyarankan yaitu penyimpanan pada suhu dingin dan menyediakan rantai pendingin selama distribusi dan pemasaran adalah cara terbaik untuk memperpanjang masa simpan dan pemasaran jarak jauh buah mangga Arumanis. Untuk mencegah proses dehidrasi yang tinggi dari buah mangga Arumanis yang disimpan pada kondisi penyimpanan dingin dan rantai pendingin selama pendistribusian dan pemasarannya, dapat dilakukan dengan pengemasan secara individu dengan film plastik dengan ketebalan 0.02 mm. Penelitian lebih lanjut masih diperlukan untuk mengkaji atau menguji apakah pemasakan secara normal dapat terjadi pada buah mangga Arumanis bila dikembalikan pada suhu kamar setelah mengalami penyimpanan selama 40-45 hari pada suhu dingin


I.W. Arga, A.A.A. Wulandira S.D dan I D.A. Sri Yudhari



The role of paddy producer, paddy merchant and rice milling unit business is discussed. The result, of the research are as follows :
Paddy Producer
(1) The enterprise ownership of paddy enterprise belong to private enterprise. (2) The enterprise belong to small scale in size, where the average size between 0.295-0,58 hectare/enterprise. (3) All of the peasant did not make any farm recording for their farming activity. (4) All of the peasant have a abundant family labor, such that a greater part of the labor become disgussed un employment in the enterprise. (5) The abundant labor is than sell by the peasant for doing off farm work for getting off farm income. (6) There are several kinds off farm work that could be engage by the peasant (Shanon index for similarity, H > 1). (7) Land use intensity is high, 200-300%. (8) There are 4 kinds of land tenure, mainly private property, share cropping, land renting, and its combination. (9) the paddy yield vary between 7,6 – 13,3 ton/ha/year. (10) about 46-80 percent of the paddy is sold by the peasant to the paddy merchant while it stand in the field. The rest of the paddy is stocked by the peasant for family consumption. (11) About 48.0-60.0percent of peasant income, came from paddy and the other part of the income came from several kind of other crop and livestock and off farm income. (12) The average expenses for paddy enterprise is varied from 4.0-13.0 percent/ha/harvest from gross income. (13) The average gross margin for paddy enterprise is about 87.0-96%/ha/harvest from gross income. (14) The average gross margin varied between 13-30 million rupiah/ha/harvest. (15) The average of the total cost of production is about 1.3-1.7 million rupiah/ha/harvest. (16) The paddy price earn by the peasant approaches the government floor price for paddy, that is Rp 2.400,00/kg/dry harvest paddy.. This is the minimum condition for the peasant release from monopolistic exploitation. All in all paddy farming is a profitable enterprise.
The strategi for the peasant in order exist in the market, is increasing total paddy production and it’s quality through the better cropping methods. It’s also suggested in order to develop corporate farming among peasants, such that the farm belong to economic size.

The Paddy Merchant
The general role of the paddy merchant is selling and buying paddy and they applied mixed strategies. For buying paddy operation at the farm gate “fixed capital”, that is power thresher and cash is needed. Operation capital could be access through local bank, such as, BRI, BPD, KUD and the soft loan from DPM-LUEP. For winning the competition and exist in the market all of paddy merchant allocated their capital into rice-milling unit (RMU). Buying strategy for the paddy merchant on farm gate is bargaining strategy, such that he got maximum profit. The short run as well as long run strategy for exist in the market is increasing investment for capital buying (in this case is power thresher or rice milling unit) and market operation that could be access from bank. All in all paddy merchant enterprise is a profitable business.
Rice Milling Unit
RMU is usually belong to paddy merchant. Rice milling enterprise got the paddy for milling from family house hold and from paddy merchant. Total rent that paid by household family to rice milling enterprise is about 2-31% from total rent that receive by the rice milling enterprise. The rest about 69-98% of the rent source from paddy merchant. That is why the rice milling enterprise is considered as profitable business. Strategy for rice milling unit is serve the best service to customer. The first one is provide small RMU special for serving family household, the second one is to provide a larger RMU special for serving paddy merchant. In all I suggest to all RMU enterprise in order to increase investment for RMU machinery and technology, and increasing facility for safety work and hygiene.

Oleh :
T. G. O. Susila , I. G. L. Oka Cakra and I.W. Siti
Fakultas Peternakan Universitas Udayana

An experiment that aim to improving the productivity of finishing Bali cattle fed rice straw with concentrate supplementation was conducted for twelve weeks at Penatih Village, Denpasar Regency and animal nutrition laboratory, Faculty Of Animal Husbandry Udayana University Bali. The completely randomized block design (CRBD) was used in this experiment consisted of three treatments and three blocks (replicates). So there are nine experiment units. Each experiment unit consisted of a head of cattle, so total number of cattle used in this experiment were nine heads, with initial average body weight 223 ± 0,8 kg. The three treatments were P1= cattle fed rice straw ad lib. + concentrate 1% from body weight, P2= cattle fed rice straw ad lib. + concentrate 1,5% from body weight, and P3 = cattle fed rice straw ad lib. +2% concentrate from body weight. Concentrate was fed twice a day at 07.00 a.m. and at 15.00 p.m. and water was fed unrestricted. Variable measured in this experiment was consumption and digestibility coefficient of (dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, crude fiber) consumption of gross energy, daily weight gain, FCR, and feed cost for increasing one kilogram of body weight. The data was analysis with analysis of variance. If the difference between the treatment statistically significant (p < 0,05), analysis will be continued by Duncan`s Multiple Range test (Steel and Storrie, 1990). The result of experiment show that increasing concentrate supplementation from 1,0% to 1,5- 2,0% from body weight significantly increased dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, crude fiber, gross energy consumption, and daily weight gain but did not affect on digestibility coefficient of dry matter, FCR, and feed cost for increasing one kilogram of body weight. Increasing concentrate supplement from 1% to 1,5 - 2% increased daily weight gain 22,08 -47,85% and feed cost for increasing one kilogram of body weight 16,20 – 26,40 % (p > 0,05). The lowest daily weight gain (543,33 gram/head/day) obtained from cattle fed concentrate 1% from body weight and the highest daily weight gain (803,33 gram/head/day) was obtain from cattle fed concentrate 2% from body weight. Based on the results of this experiment it can be concluded that increasing concentrate supplement from 1% to 1,5-2% from body weight on finishing Bali cattle fed rice straw ad lib increased daily weight gain 22,08 -47,85% and fed cost for increasing 1 kg body weight 16,20 – 26,40%

I Ketut Suter 1), I Made Anom Sutrisna Wijaya 1) dan Ni Made Yusa 1)
1) Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Udayana.
Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Telpon/Fax : (0361) 701801
E-mail :


Ledok is a traditional food from Nusa Penida, Bali, in form of non-rice porridge. The main ingredients of ledok were corn and cassava, and other ingredients were peanut, red bean and spinach. These ingredients were locally available. By formulating of ledok instant through additional of frigate mackerel and seaweed for increasing its nutrient contents. The study was conducted in order to find out the best formulation and storage method of ledok instant. Two experiments were conducted. The first experiment was conducted by Random Block Design, with five formulation as a treatments (frigate mackerel and seaweed ratio) and the second experiment was conducted by Random Block Design, with six storage metods. Ledok instant were storage four months. The characteristic of ledok were observes: sensory characteristic and its nutrient contents. The result of the study showed that the best formulation was frigate mackerel and seaweed ratio = 30 : 0, and the contents of water (79,60 %), ash (0,74 %), protein (3,17 %), fat (3,85 %), carbohydrate (12,64 %), vitamin C (21,15 mg/100 g) and fibre (3,43 %). After four months storage, the best storage method was package by polyetilene and all of ingredients of ledok were mixed together.

Key words : ledok instant, frigate mackerel, seaweed and polyetilene

Mitigasi & Manajemen Bencana


I Made Pasek Diantha
I Nyoman Sirta
I G.P Eka Wisanjaya

Caste in Bali currently had generated several conflicts in customary society in Bali. This was threatened the goal of social harmony and impeded the attaintment of what so call “Ajeg bali” (sustainable peace). This research wish to answer theree problems in conjungtion with the conflict of caste on law and human rights perspective, such as; (1) how did the origin and development of caste, (2) what is the role of the law in improving the old Balinese tradition which based on caste system, (3) and what kind of principles of human rights did transgressed by caste system in Bali. This research using the method of empirical legal research or doctrinal research and the character of the data was qualitative, but quantitative data was need as complementing the qualitative one. In discussing problems of the research, it was supported by some theories in legal science such as :(1) Theory of Judicial Decision by Ter Haar; ; (2) Theory of Law as Social Engineering from Roscue Pound; (3) Theory of Morality of Law from L Fuller. The conclusion was; (1) the origin of caste system emerged from the racial conflict in ancient Indian tradition between European race (Aryan people) and Asian race (Dravida or Dalits people), (2) the role of the law is very important in improving the old balinese tradition toward the new law based on the value of Pancasila (state philosophy) and human rights; (3) the general principles of human rights which transgressed by caste system in Bali was the general principle of “inherent dignity and equal rights” among people.

Key words; caste, law, human rights



Ni Wayan Sri Suprapti; I Komang Gde Bendesa; Sudarsana Arka; Ni Made Rastini


The purpose of this study is to examine customer satisfaction of Udayana University. In this study, the customers are those students as internal stakeholder and alumni as external one. The sample size is 490 under graduate students and 67 alumni. Data are collected through self administered questionnaire.
They are two approach to measure customer satisfaction, directly and indirectly measurement. With directly measurement, customers are asked to asses the overall performance, while with indirectly measurement which is also called as importance-performance analysis, they are asked to asses the importance and performance level for all variable indicators. There are four variables examined: (1) learning process; (2) library services; (3) academic affair services; and (4) physical facilities.
The findings showed that based on four variables examined, customers are satisfied enough with educational services from Udayana University. The research also found that customers were loyal to Udayana University. However, based on importance-performance analysis, the performance level of all variables examined were below the importance level. If the importance level could be considered as customer expectation, so the performance level of educational services of Udayana University was slightly below the customer expectation.
When it was mapped on importance-performance diagram, most of variable indicators were on the up right side. It meant the performance should be kept well. However, there is a dynamic environment, especially in labor market. When hired employee, the employer have more demanding than before. The effect is the expectations of the other stakeholders such as the student candidate and their parents toward out put quality of Udayana University become higher. Therefore, Udayana University has to improve the learning process and supporting facilities to fulfill its stakeholder expectations. For instant, it should increase the convenience of classroom, update the library with the newest reference, increase internet access, update curriculum and learning method to develop student self confidence.

Pengentasan Kemiskinan


Oleh :
I.A. Mahatma T, K. Satriawan, I G.A. Lani Triani, I.A. Rina Pratiwi P dan I.B. Widyarsika Sanjaya

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan rekomendasi agar taraf hidup petani lebih layak dan terhindar dari kemiskinan, mengetahui pendapatan dan keuntungan petani rumput laut, mengetahui margin pemasaran rumput laut pada setiap distribusinya, mengetahui pengembangan alternatif industri rumput laut yang tepat dan menelaah strategi dalam pengembangan industri rumput laut yang terpilih.
Metode penelitian yang digunakan berupa wawancara, penyebaran kuisioner, studi literatur, survei awal, analisis kualitatif (metode Analitical Hierarchy Process/AHP).
Hasil akhir analisis AHP untuk pemilihan prioritas pengembangan agroindustri rumput laut di kabupaten Klungkung dari lima alterbatif yangdiusulkan maka direkomendasikan agroindustri dodol rumput laut sebagai alternative terbaik karena memilii bobot prioritas terbesar yaitu 0,265. Prioritas ke dua di tempati oleh tepun dengan bobot prioritas 0,259, sedangkan pada posisi ketiga ditempati oleh manisan rumput laut dengan bobot prioritas sebesar 0,220. Prioritas yang menempati posisi keempat dan kelima adalah agroindustri tepung dan produk olahan segar dengan bobot prioritas berturut-turut 0,166 dan 0,86.
Kata kunci : rumput laut, pemilihan prioritas agroindustri, AHP

Ketahanan Pangan Keluarga Miskin di Desa Pengotan Bangli Dikaji Dari Aspek Gizi Masyarakat

A. A. Gde Muninjaya

A b s t r a k

Latar Belakang. Hampir 56% keluarga di Desa Pengotan Bangli adalah rumah tangga miskin. Proporsi balita kurang gizi di desa ini tertinggi di Kecamatan Bangli. Selama ini, penanggulangan gangguan gizi masyarakat lebih banyak dilakukan oleh sektor kesehatan, padahal akar masalahnya cukup kompleks terkait dengan kemiskinan dan ketahanan pangan. Keduanya memengaruhi pola konsumsi dan asupan gizi.
Tujuan. Studi ini mengkaji profil keluarga miskin dari aspek sosial ekonomi, ketersediaan pangan, dan potensi agribisnis. Hasil kajian dimanfaatkan untuk menyusun strategi peningkatan ketersediaan pangan dan revitalisasi pelayanan kesehatan dasar.
Metode. Penelitian operasional ini dilakukan di Desa Pengotan dengan rancangan cross sectional discriptive. Pedekatan rapid rusal appraisal digunakan untuk pengumpulan data. Sample adalah 517 KK miskin, 98% berhasil diwawancarai oleh petugas lapangan yang terlatih. Cara pengumpulan data yang lainnya adalah FGD, observasi lapangan, studi kasus balita gizi buruk, dan analisis data sekunder. Analisis diskriptif dilakukan untuk menggambarkan kemiskinan, keamanan pangan dan peningkatan produktivitas usaha tani keluarga miskin.
Hasil. Tingkat pendidikan KK miskin di desa ini sangat rendah. Kepemilikan lahan dan pengeluaran keluarga untuk makanan gizi juga rendah, termasuk kesuburan lahan pertanian mereka. Kemiskinan memengaruhi rendahnya produktifitas lahan pertanian dan pendapatan keluarga. Kondisi ini diperburuk karena keterbatasan lapangan kerja dan rendahnya mobilitas penduduk usia produktif mencari kerja ke luar desa. Proporsi gangguan gizi balita, rendahnya pendidikan dan keterbatasan pendapatan keluarga menempatkan desa ini rawan pangan. Pengembangan sistem pertanian organik terpadu, kewirausahaan revitalisasi pelayanan kesehatan dasar untuk mengatasi masalah gizi keluarga miskin perlu mendapat prioritas pembangunan Pemkab Bangli.
Kata kunci: kemiskinan, rawan pangan, gangguan gizi, sistem pertanian terpadu organik


Dr. I G.W Murjana Yasa
Drs. I Made Jember, M.Si
Ni Putu Wiwin Setyari, SE., M.Si

The distribution of capital for developing productive enterprises is trusted to be one of the solutions to poverty. The poor families have limited access to any formal finance institution which applies the principle of prudential system. Having no collateral is the main problem. The guaranty program has been applied by the government of the Municipal City to overcome this problem through banks; however, the poor families still have relatively limited access to these finance institutions. Then a micro finance institution (Lembaga Keuangan Mikro, hereon abbreviated to LKM) which is close to and has been deeply rooted in the poor families, has been established. The local credit union known as Lembaga Perkreditan Rakyat (LPD) has been one of the most developing LKM in Bali. Empirically, it has been able to minimize the number of the poor families. It has been proved that LPD has been able to strengthen the local economy.
The technique of descriptive analysis by explaining the result of the survey conducted through interviews and observations is used in this study. This analysis will be able to evaluate the guaranty program and the local loan guaranty system, to evaluate the existence of LPD, to identify the possibility of extending the network between the banks, as the finance institutions, and LPD as an attempt to develop productive economy.
The findings show that some criterion used to determine whether a family is classified as poor or not do not work. If income is used as the indicator, a family can be stated to be poor; however, if the other criteria are referred to, that family has the access to education, health, housing feasibility and other public services. The basic problems in developing enterpirses are limited accessibility to capital, acquisition of production input and marketing technique. To facilitate the existence of KTA and UKM, among the LKM available, LPD and Cooperative are the best choices. The reason is that they are more accessible. In addition, they are more used, decrease interest rate and will directly improve the community well-being simultaneously through their developed roles.

JEL classification: G21, H81, 13B
Keywords: Micro Finance Institution (Lembaga Keuangan Makro), Local Credit Union (Lembaga Perkreditan Rakyat) and Loan without Collateral


I Ketut Surya Diarta, I Made Adikampana, dan Putu Udayani Wijayanti
Universitas Udayana, Bali. Email:

This research aims to examine the potential linkage between pro poor tourim (PPT) principles and community development (CD) program; to develop PPT and ABCD (asset based and community driven development) based community development model, and; to examine its impact to community development level in Junjungan Customary Village.
The research results suggest that PPT and CD principles has a deep linkage and compatibility to be included in CD model. PPT and ABCD-based community development model can be drawn using an applicable logic model (LM) method. PPT and ABCD-based community development in Junjungan Village increases its community development status mainly in commmunity welfare and capacity building..
Keywords: community development, pro poor tourism, asset based and community driven development, Junjungan Bali.

Perubahan Iklim


Oleh :
Dr. Ir. I Wayan Arthana, MS
Ir. I Wayan Restu, Msi

Batur Lake located at Kintamani District, Bangli Regency is an important water reserve for Bali. Research has been done at June – October 2009. There are 5 stations with 10 substations each selected for collecting water quality and plankton samples. There are 14 parameters of water quality measured namely temparature, pH, clarity, DO, BOD, COD, nitrate, phosphate, ammonia, H2S, Cd, Pb, Cu and Fe. At each station was also observed macrozoobenthos and aquatic plants. The average of nitrate and phosphate content were each 1,1498 ppm and 0,1242 ppm. There is clear positive correlation between COD and BOD5 with the corelation value of R2 = 0,927. The average spesies number of phytoplankton and zooplankton were each 30,62 and 9,58 spesies. Three common of macrozoobentos species found were Thiara scabra, Melanoides torulosa and Thiara winteri. The common aquatic plants species were Poligonum barbatum, Typha angustifolia and Eleocharis tetraquetra. At a location that tends to be eutrofic, the range of N/P ratio value is nerrower with lower average value compared to at a balance location with the range of N/P ratio was wider and higher average value.
Key words : lake, water quality, nitrate, phosphate, aquatic plants


A. A. G. Raka Dalem1, I N. Widana2, I N. Simpen3, I N. Artawan4, and A.A.P.Agung Suryawan Wiranatha5
1 Ecotourism Study Group, FMIPA, Udayana University, Bali, Indonesia
Email:, telephone (mobile) (++ 62) 81 139 5360.
2 Department of Mathematics, FMIPA, Udayana University - Bali
3 Department of Chemistry, FMIPA, Udayana University - Bali
4 Department of Physics, FMIPA, Udayana University – Bali
5Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Udayana University - Bali

A study on “Efforts perpormed by hotels in Bali in looking after the environment” was undertaken in 2009, by utilising data from July, 2008 until June, 2009. Objectives of the study was for collecting data on any efforts undertaken by hotels in looking after the environment especially related to minimising water consumption, garbage handling, the use of chemicals (especially cleaning chemicals), minimising energy consumption and ecosystem conservation (measured from the proportion of natural vegetation). Data were collected from interviews, document checkings and distributing questionaires.
Results of the study showed that in average water consumption of hotels in Bali was 115 litres / guest night. It was considered low, less than the benchmark of Green Globe/Earthcheck which was 1,300 litres / guest night. The average of energy consumption was 0.322 MJ per guest night, which was still much below the baseline levels / standard of 340 MJ / guest night. In average garbage/waste produced by hotels was 0.0309 litre/guest night. This was also much below the baseline of 6 litres / guest night. The use of biodegradable cleaning chemicals in the hotel was averaged 35% which should be a minimum of 50%. There were 22% only of hotels which used cleaning chemicals that were biodegradable over 50% (over the standard). In average the proportion of natural vegetation in a hotel was 29%. There were 43% of sampled hotels of which their natural vegetation was over the baseline of 33%.
Thus, hotels in Bali should improved their performance in looking after the environment, especially dealing with cleaning chemicals and ecosystem conservation. In this regards, they should increase the proportion of the use of biodegradable cleaning chemicals and increase the proportion of land kept with their natural vegetation.

Keywords: hotel, water, energy, garbage/waste, chemical, vegetation, environment


Oleh: Ir.Putu Preantjaya Winaya, MT
Jurusan Teknik Sipil, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Udayana


Transportasi merupakan urat nadi kehidupan, dan mempunyai fungsi sebagai penggerak, pendorong dan penunjang pembangunan. Dalam rangka menunjang kelancaran, keamanan, dan keselamatan lalu-lintas distribusi orang dan barang, diperlukan adanya kondisi jalan raya yang mantap, dalam arti terpeliharanya kapasitas, kemampuan daya dukung, dan pemanfaatannya. Sesuai Peraturan Pemerintah Nomer 43 Tahun 1993 mengenai pengawasan dan pengamanan penggunaan prasarana jalan agar dapat dicegah kerusakannya yang diakibatkan oleh muatan lebih.
Berdasarkan Peraturan Pemerintah Nomer 25 Tahun 2000, tentang Kewenangan Pemerintah dan Kewenangan Provinsi sebagai Daerah Otonom, pelaksanaan pengawasan muatan lebih angkutan barang di jalan melalui Unit Pelaksana Penimbangan Kendaraan Bermotor (UPPKB) Penyebab pelanggaran beban muatan lebih pada kendaraan barang adalah; Operator angkutan berkeinginan untuk memaksimalkan kemampuan angkut/muat maksimum kendaraan, artinya biaya operasi kendaraan tidak ekonomis, jika kendaraan tidak dibebani secara maksimal dan tidak adanya kontrol yang tegas pada pelanggaran muatan kendaraan. Selama ini hanya dilakukan uji petik yang dilakukan maksimal 3 kali setiap bulan. Beban kendaraan yang memuat lebih dari 25% dari jumlah beban ijin (JBI), hanya dikenakan denda tanpa ada penurunan muatan di jembatan timbang.
Diperlukan adanya penelitian untuk menganalisis angka lintasan ekivalen berdasarkan lalu-lintas kendaraan yang melalui Ruas Jalan Tabanan-Antosari, dengan beban standar (8.16 Ton), dan berdasarkan lalu-lintas kendaraan yang melalui Ruas Jalan Tabanan-Antosari, dengan beban aktual yang tercatat pada jembatan timbang. Tujuan Penelitian ini adalah; 1. Menganalisa angka lintasan ekivalen kendaraan berdasarkan beban standar, dan 2. Menganalisa angka lintasan ekivalen kendaraan berdasarkan beban aktual kendaraan dari sampel data Jembatan Timbang Cekik, dan lalu-lintas kendaraan pada Ruas Jalan Tabanan-Antosari, Bali, 3. Menganalisa dampak beban kendaraan terhadap peningkatan angka lintasan ekivalen kendaraan pada Ruas Jalan Tabanan-Antosari, Bali
Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah; dengan melakukan penghitungan lalu-lintas kendaraan, pada Ruas Jalan Tabanan-Antosari, dan Intervew Pinggir Jalan, untuk mendapatkan asal dan tujuan perjalanan. Selanjutnya melakukan survei dan mencatat penimbangan berat kendaraan pada Jembatan Timbang ‘Cekik’, yang digunakan sebagai sampel berat kendaraan barang yang beroperasi pada Ruas Jalan Tabanan-Antosari. Selanjutnya mencatat jenis kendaraan, beban muatan kendaraan, asal dan tujuan kendaraan, barang yang diangkut, jumlah roda dan komposisi roda setiap jenis kendaraan.
Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah: 1. Hasil analisa total lintasan ekivalen kendaraan berdasarkan beban standar, dan lalu-lintas kendaraan sebesar 6158,42 lintasan, 2. Hasil analisa total lintasan ekivalen kendaraan berdasarkan beban aktual kendaraan sebesar 15584,90 lintasan, 3.Hasil analisa dampak beban lebih terhadap peningkatan lintasan ekivalen pada ruas jalan Tabanan-Antosari, Bali; adalah sebesar 2,53 kali atau sebesar 253 %.

Kata kunci: lalu lintas, angka lintasan ekivalen, beban kendaraan.


Transportation is the lifeblood of life, and has functions as a driver, driving and supporting the development. In order to support the efficiency, safety, traffic safety and the distribution of people and goods, needed a stable condition of the highway, in the sense of maintaining the capacity, bearing capacity, and utilization.
According to Government Regulation Number 43 Year 1993 regarding the use of surveillance and security infrastructure in order to prevent the damage caused by loads more.
Based on Government Regulation Number 25 Year 2000, concerning the authority of the Government and the Authority of Provinces as Autonomous Regions, the implementation of further oversight of freight charges on the road through the Executing Unit Vehicle Weighing (UPPKB).
Causes violations over loading on goods vehicles are; Operator wishes to maximize the ability to transport freight / maximum load the vehicle, meaning that the cost of vehicle operation is not economical, if the vehicle is not subjected to the maximum and the absence of strict controls on vehicle violation charges. During the test is only done by picking up three times every month. Vehicle load which includes more than 25% of the total burden of the license (JBI), only subject to a fine without any impairment charge at weigh stations.
Research is required to analyze the trajectory equivalence based on vehicle traffic through Tabanan-Antosari Road, with a standard load (8.16 ton). And based on vehicle traffic through Tabanan-Antosari Road, with the actual expense recorded at weigh stations .
The objective of this study are: 1. Analyzing the equivalent vehicle trajectory based on a standard load, and 2. Analyzing the equivalent vehicle trajectory based on actual load data from a sample vehicle throttle Weigh Bridge, and vehicle traffic on Antosari-Tabanan Roads, Bali, 3. Analyzing the impact load on the vehicle trajectory is equivalent to the Antosari-Tabanan Roads, Bali
Research methods used are; by doing a traffic count of vehicles, on Antosari-Tabanan Road, Roadside interview, to obtain the origin and destination. Furthermore, conducting surveys and recording of vehicle weighing on Cekik weigh bridges, used as a sample of heavy goods vehicles are operated through Cekik weigh bridge. Furthermore, note the type of vehicle, cargo loading vehicle, the origin and destination of vehicles, goods transported, the number of wheels and wheel composition of each type of vehicle.
The conclusion from this study are: 1. Results of analysis based on the total path load equivalent standard vehicles, and vehicle traffic at 6158.42 trajectory, 2. Result analysis trajectory equivalent to the total actual vehicle expenses based on vehicle registration 15584.90 trajectory, 3.Impact analysis on the trajectory equivalence with road-Antosari Tabanan, Bali; is 2.53 times or by 253%.

Keywords: Traffic, Figures Trajectory of Equivalence, Vehicle loads

Transformation of Literature and Culture Values
in Developing Creative Industry In Bali

I Made Suastika
Nyoman Kutha Ratna
I Gede Mudana
Putu Sukardja
Tjokorda Udiana N.P.
Made Sumbang Wijaya


A research of transformation of literature value and local culture in developing creative industry in Bali was conducted to discover literature values and local culture which were developing into creative products in Bali and its transforming process itself as well. The research used qualitative method whose data were collected through an interview, observation, and documentation. Technical analysis of this research was qualitative data analysis. The literature values and local culture and creative industries in Bali were this year packed into a program well known as Tahun Indonesia Kreatif 2009 (creative Indonesia year 2009). The research involved some aspects in creative economy such as handicraft, traditional art market and art performance.

Keywords: transformation, literature and culture values, creative industry.


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